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      Salt – A Potential ‘Uremic Toxin’?

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          Abstract

          It has been known for decades that salt (NaCl) determines extracellular volume as well as blood pressure and is one cause of hypertension. The difficulty to control the NaCl balance and thus treat sodium overload and hypertension in patients on dialysis has been recognized by Scribner in the early days of dialysis. In recent years, an impressive body of evidence has accumulated indicating that in essential hypertension, NaCl – blood pressure independently – causes target organ damage such as left ventricular hypertrophy, microalbuminuria, and increased aortic stiffness. It has further been recognized that NaCl increases oxidative stress and, again blood pressure independently, amplifies tissue injury induced by aldosterone. In renal damage models, progression is dramatically accelerated by high NaCl intake. Sodium as a potential culprit in progression to target organ damage in terminal renal failure has not been well investigated so far. However, it is possible, and indeed likely, that sodium plays an adverse role in the genesis of target organ damage in terminal renal failure.

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          Most cited references 23

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          Urinary sodium excretion and cardiovascular mortality in Finland: a prospective study.

          The evidence that high salt intake increases the risk of cardiovascular disease has been challenged. We aimed to find out whether salt intake, measured by 24 h urinary sodium excretion, is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease frequency and mortality, and all-cause mortality. We prospectively followed 1173 Finnish men and 1263 women aged 25-64 years with complete data on 24 h urinary sodium excretion and cardiovascular risk factors. The endpoints were an incident coronary and stroke event, and death from coronary heart disease, cardiovascular disease, and any cause. Each endpoint was analysed separately with the Cox proportional hazards model. The hazards ratios for coronary heart disease, cardiovascular disease, and all-cause mortality, associated with a 100 mmol increase in 24 h urinary sodium excretion, were 1.51 (95% CI 1.14-2.00), 1.45 (1.14-1.84), and 1.26 (1.06-1.50), respectively, in both men and women. The frequency of acute coronary events, but not acute stroke events, rose significantly with increasing sodium excretion. When analyses were done separately for each sex, the risk ratios were significant in men only. There was a significant interaction between sodium excretion and body mass index for cardiovascular and total mortality; sodium predicted mortality in men who were overweight. Correction for the regression dilution bias increased the hazards ratios markedly. High sodium intake predicted mortality and risk of coronary heart disease, independent of other cardiovascular risk factors, including blood pressure. These results provide direct evidence of the harmful effects of high salt intake in the adult population.
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            Dietary sodium intake and subsequent risk of cardiovascular disease in overweight adults.

             Jiang Ping He (1999)
            Dietary sodium is positively associated with blood pressure, and ecological and animal studies both have suggested that high dietary sodium intake increases stroke mortality. To examine the risk of cardiovascular disease associated with dietary sodium intake in overweight and nonoverweight persons. Prospective cohort study. The first National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Epidemiologic Follow-up Study, conducted in 1982-1984, 1986, 1987, and 1992. Of those aged 25 to 74 years when the survey was conducted in 1971 -1975 (14407 participants), a total of 2688 overweight and 6797 nonoverweight persons were included in the analysis. Dietary sodium and energy intake were estimated at baseline using a single 24-hour dietary recall method. Incidence and mortality data for cardiovascular disease were obtained from medical records and death certificates. For overweight and nonoverweight persons, over an average of 19 years of follow-up, the total number of documented cases were as follows: 680 stroke events (210 fatal), 1727 coronary heart disease events (614 fatal), 895 cardiovascular disease deaths, and 2486 deaths from all causes. Among overweight persons with an average energy intake of 7452 kJ, a 100 mmol higher sodium intake was associated with a 32% increase (relative risk [RR], 1.32; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07-1.64; P = .01) in stroke incidence, 89% increase (RR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.31-2.74; P<.001) in stroke mortality, 44% increase (RR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.14-1.81; P = .002) in coronary heart disease mortality, 61% increase (RR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.32-1.96; P<.001) in cardiovascular disease mortality, and 39% increase (RR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.23-1.58; P<.001) in mortality from all causes. Dietary sodium intake was not significantly associated with cardiovascular disease risk in nonoverweight persons. Our analysis indicates that high sodium intake is strongly and independently associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in overweight persons.
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              Glycosaminoglycan polymerization may enable osmotically inactive Na+ storage in the skin.

              Osmotically inactive skin Na(+) storage is characterized by Na(+) accumulation without water accumulation in the skin. Negatively charged glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) may be important in skin Na(+) storage. We investigated changes in skin GAG content and key enzymes of GAG chain polymerization during osmotically inactive skin Na(+) storage. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a 0.1% or 8% NaCl diet for 8 wk. Skin GAG content was measured by Western blot analysis. mRNA content of key dermatan sulfate polymerization enzymes was measured by real-time PCR. The Na(+) concentration in skin was determined by dry ashing. Skin Na(+) concentration during osmotically inactive Na(+) storage was 180-190 mmol/l. Increasing skin Na(+) coincided with increasing GAG content in cartilage and skin. Dietary NaCl loading coincided with increased chondroitin synthase mRNA content in the skin, whereas xylosyl transferase, biglycan, and decorin content were unchanged. We conclude that osmotically inactive skin Na(+) storage is an active process characterized by an increased GAG content in the reservoir tissue. Inhibition or disinhibition of GAG chain polymerization may regulate osmotically inactive Na(+) storage.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                BPU
                Blood Purif
                10.1159/issn.0253-5068
                Blood Purification
                S. Karger AG
                978-3-8055-8052-6
                978-3-318-01301-6
                0253-5068
                1421-9735
                2006
                December 2005
                23 December 2005
                : 24
                : 1
                : 63-66
                Affiliations
                Department of Internal Medicine, Ruperto Carola University Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany
                Article
                89439 Blood Purif 2006;24:63–66
                10.1159/000089439
                16361843
                © 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                References: 44, Pages: 4
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/89439
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