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      Quantifying the impact of shape uncertainty on predicted arrhythmias

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          A Survey of Fault Diagnosis and Fault-Tolerant Techniques—Part I: Fault Diagnosis With Model-Based and Signal-Based Approaches

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            Promotion of atrial fibrillation by heart failure in dogs: atrial remodeling of a different sort.

            Studies of atrial fibrillation (AF) due to atrial tachycardia have provided insights into the remodeling mechanisms by which "AF begets AF" but have not elucidated the substrate that initially supports AF before remodeling occurs. We studied the effects of congestive heart failure (CHF), an entity strongly associated with clinical AF, on atrial electrophysiology in the dog and compared the results with those in dogs subjected to rapid atrial pacing (RAP; 400 bpm) with a controlled ventricular rate (AV block plus ventricular pacemaker at 80 bpm). CHF induced by 5 weeks of rapid ventricular pacing (220 to 240 bpm) increased the duration of AF induced by burst pacing (from 8+/-4 seconds in control dogs to 535+/-82 seconds; P<0.01), similar to the effect of 1 week of RAP (713+/-300 seconds). In contrast to RAP, CHF did not alter atrial refractory period, refractoriness heterogeneity, or conduction velocity at a cycle length of 360 ms; however, CHF dogs had a substantial increase in the heterogeneity of conduction during atrial pacing (heterogeneity index in CHF dogs, 2. 76+/-0.16 versus 1.46+/-0.10 for control and 1.51+/-0.06 for RAP dogs; P<0.01) owing to discrete regions of slow conduction. Histological examination revealed extensive interstitial fibrosis (connective tissue occupying 12.8+/-1.9% of the cross-sectional area) in CHF dogs compared with control (0.8+/-0.3%) and RAP (0. 9+/-0.2%) dogs. Experimental CHF strongly promotes the induction of sustained AF by causing interstitial fibrosis that interferes with local conduction. The substrates of AF in CHF are very different from those of atrial tachycardia-related AF, with important potential implications for understanding, treating, and preventing AF related to CHF.
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              Treatment of atrial fibrillation by the ablation of localized sources: CONFIRM (Conventional Ablation for Atrial Fibrillation With or Without Focal Impulse and Rotor Modulation) trial.

              We hypothesized that human atrial fibrillation (AF) may be sustained by localized sources (electrical rotors and focal impulses), whose elimination (focal impulse and rotor modulation [FIRM]) may improve outcome from AF ablation. Catheter ablation for AF is a promising therapy, whose success is limited in part by uncertainty in the mechanisms that sustain AF. We developed a computational approach to map whether AF is sustained by several meandering waves (the prevailing hypothesis) or localized sources, then prospectively tested whether targeting patient-specific mechanisms revealed by mapping would improve AF ablation outcome. We recruited 92 subjects during 107 consecutive ablation procedures for paroxysmal or persistent (72%) AF. Cases were prospectively treated, in a 2-arm 1:2 design, by ablation at sources (FIRM-guided) followed by conventional ablation (n = 36), or conventional ablation alone (n = 71; FIRM-blinded). Localized rotors or focal impulses were detected in 98 (97%) of 101 cases with sustained AF, each exhibiting 2.1 ± 1.0 sources. The acute endpoint (AF termination or consistent slowing) was achieved in 86% of FIRM-guided cases versus 20% of FIRM-blinded cases (p < 0.001). FIRM ablation alone at the primary source terminated AF in a median 2.5 min (interquartile range: 1.0 to 3.1 min). Total ablation time did not differ between groups (57.8 ± 22.8 min vs. 52.1 ± 17.8 min, p = 0.16). During a median 273 days (interquartile range: 132 to 681 days) after a single procedure, FIRM-guided cases had higher freedom from AF (82.4% vs. 44.9%; p < 0.001) after a single procedure than FIRM-blinded cases with rigorous, often implanted, electrocardiography monitoring. Adverse events did not differ between groups. Localized electrical rotors and focal impulse sources are prevalent sustaining mechanisms for human AF. FIRM ablation at patient-specific sources acutely terminated or slowed AF, and improved outcome. These results offer a novel mechanistic framework and treatment paradigm for AF. (Conventional Ablation for Atrial Fibrillation With or Without Focal Impulse and Rotor Modulation [CONFIRM]; NCT01008722). Copyright © 2012 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

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                Journal
                Computers in Biology and Medicine
                Computers in Biology and Medicine
                Elsevier BV
                00104825
                February 2023
                February 2023
                : 153
                : 106528
                Article
                10.1016/j.compbiomed.2022.106528
                1527a30f-fe42-4a29-b721-609cc46bc2c8
                © 2023

                https://www.elsevier.com/tdm/userlicense/1.0/

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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