Objective To investigate the risk of Anisakis infections among high-risk populations along the coastal areas of Jiangsu Province, so as to develop the strategy for the prevention and control of anisakiasis in the province.
Methods Three counties along the coastal areas of Jiangsu Province were selected as the study sites in 2018, including Rudong County in Nantong City, Haizhou District in Lianyungang City and Dongtai City in Yancheng City. The knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of anisakiasis prevention and control, and the prevalence of serum specific IgG antibody against Anisakis were investigated among high-risk populations among these three study sites, including fishermen, fish seller and people who liked eating fresh and live marine fish. Factors affecting the prevalence of the specific IgG antibody against Anisakis were identified using a multiple logistic regression model. In addition, Anisakis larvae infections were detected in fresh and live marine fish samples collected from local markets, and the prevalence and intensity of Anisakis infections were estimated.
Results A total of 625 high-risk populations were investigated, including 349 men (55.8%). Only 13.0% of the subjects heard about anisakiasis, and a low awareness rate of anisakiasis prevention and control knowledge was seen among these three types of high-risk populations. There were 21.6% of the subjects eating raw or half-cooked marine fish, 5.8% eating undercooked marine fish, 3.2% presenting vomiting, nausea and diarrhea after eating marine fish, 5.1% developing systemic allergic symptoms, and 65.6% using the same chopping board for raw and cooked food. The sero-prevalence of the anti- Anisakis IgG antibody was 7.0% among the study subjects. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified education level [ OR = 0.687, 95% CI (0.478, 0.987)] and development of systemic allergic symptoms [ OR = 4.641, 95% CI(1.411, 15.268)]as factors affecting the positive anti- Anisakis IgG antibody among the study subjects. Among 494 fresh and live marine fish detected, the prevalence and intensity of Anisakis larvae infection was 64.0% and 8.1 larvae per fish, with high prevalence seen in Trichiurus haumela and Pneumatophorus japonicas.
Conclusions The awareness of anisakiasis prevention and control knowledge is low among the high-risk populations living along the coastal areas of Jiangsu Province, and there are high-risk behaviors, such as eating raw or half-cooked food, using the same chopping board for raw and cooked food. In addition, the prevalence of Anisakis infections is high in the marine fish in these areas. Therefore, the health education and health promotion for anisakiasis prevention and control should be intensified.
［摘要］ 目的 了解江苏省沿海地区高危人群异尖线虫感染风险, 为制定江苏省异尖线虫病预防控制措施提供基础数据。 方法 2018 年选择江苏省沿海地区南通市如东县、连云港市海州区和盐城市东台市作为调查点, 对从事海鱼捕捞、鲜活海鱼销售、喜食鲜活海鱼者等 3 类异尖线虫感染高危人群开展异尖线虫病防治知行信调查, 检测血清特异性异尖线虫IgG抗体, 并对上述人群血清IgG抗体阳性的影响因素进行logistic回归分析。采集当地鲜活海鱼样本, 检测异尖线虫幼虫感染情况, 计算感染率和感染度。 结果 本次调查 3 类高危人群 625 人, 其中男性 349 人 (占55.8%)。问卷调查显示, 听说过异尖线虫病的有 81 人 (13.0%); 3 类人群对异尖线虫病防治知识知晓率普遍较低, 生食或半生食海鱼者占 21.6%, 5.8% 的调查对象选择吃未煮熟的海鱼; 3.2% 食用海鱼后出现恶心、呕吐、腹泻等症状; 5.1% 出现全身过敏症状, 65.6% 砧板切生熟食不分。血清学检测结果显示, 调查人群血清异尖线虫特异性IgG抗体阳性率为7.0%。Logistic回归分析显示, 受教育程度 [ OR = 0.687, 95% CI (0.478, 0.987) ]和是否存在全身过敏症状 [ OR = 4.641, 95% CI (1.411, 15.268) ]是调查人群血清学IgG抗体阳性的影响因素。累计调查海鱼 494 条, 异尖线虫幼虫感染率为 64.0%, 感染度为 8.1 条/鱼, 其中带鱼和青占鱼感染率较高。 结论 江苏省沿海地区高危人群异尖线虫病防治知识知晓率较低, 且存在生食或半生食、砧板切生熟食不分等高危行为; 该地区海鱼异尖线虫感染率高。后续应进一步加强异尖线虫病健康教育和健康促进工作。