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      Implementation of a Progressive Three-Year Point of Care Ultrasound Curriculum for Internal Medicine Residents

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          Abstract

          Background Point-of-Care Ultrasound (PoCUS) is an ultrasound examination performed by the clinician to answer a focused question or guide an invasive procedure. Despite gaining popularity and evidence supporting the use of PoCUS, core Internal Medicine (IM) residency programs in Canada have yet to implement a comprehensive PoCUS curriculum. The objective of this study was to create a formal PoCUS curriculum. Methods We conducted a systematic needs assessment with a survey that assessed IM attending and resident comfort, training, and application of PoCUS. We also performed a literature review of selected PoCUS-guided procedures and diagnostics to assess the evidence. A working group analyzed the collected data and designed a graduated 3-year curriculum. Results The needs assessment demonstrated that PoCUS education was both necessary and in high demand. The PoCUS-guided procedures and diagnostics that were identified by the survey to be necessary for IM training were then evaluated by a literature review. Based on the evidence, a progressive 3-year curriculum was created. The working group decided on the method and timing of curriculum delivery. Conclusion McMaster University is the first IM residency program to introduce a graduated 3-year curriculum complete with competency assessment and quality assurance. Résumé Contexte L'échographie ponctuelle est un examen d'échographie effectué par le clinicien pour répondre à une question ciblée ou guider une procédure invasive. Malgré l'obtention de la popularité et des preuves appuyant l'utilisation de la messagerie instantanée, les programmes de résidence au Canada pour la médecine interne de base (GI) n'ont pas encore mis en œuvre un programme exhaustif. L'objectif de cette étude était de créer un programme d'études officiel. Méthodes Nous avons effectué une évaluation systématique des besoins avec un sondage qui évaluait la présence de GI et le confort des résidents, la formation et l'application de ces programmes. Nous avons également effectué un examen de la documentation de certaines procédures et diagnostics guidés pour évaluer la preuve. Un groupe de travail a analysé les données collectées et conçu un programme gradué de trois ans. Résultats L'évaluation des besoins a démontré que l'éducation était à la fois nécessaire et trèsdemandée. Les procédures et les diagnostics qui ont été identifiés par le sondage comme étant nécessaires à la formation en GI ont ensuite été évalués par un examen de la documentation. Sur la base des données probantes, un programme d'études progressive de trois ans a été créé. Le groupe de travail a décidé de la méthode et ducalendrier de l'exécution des programmes. Conclusion L'Université McMaster est le premier programme de résidence en GI à présenter un programme gradué de trois ans complété par l'évaluation des compétences et l'assurance de la qualité.    

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          Ultrasound guidance versus anatomical landmarks for subclavian or femoral vein catheterization.

          Central venous catheters can help with diagnosis and treatment of the critically ill. The catheter may be placed in a large vein in the neck (internal jugular vein), upper chest (subclavian vein) or groin (femoral vein). Whilst this is beneficial overall, inserting the catheter risks arterial puncture and other complications and should be performed in as few attempts as possible.In the past, anatomical 'landmarks' on the body surface were used to find the correct place to insert these catheters, but ultrasound imaging is now available. A Doppler mode is sometimes used to supplement plain 'two-dimensional' ultrasound.
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            Ultrasound guidance for placement of central venous catheters

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              Relation of mean right atrial pressure to echocardiographic and Doppler parameters of right atrial and right ventricular function.

              A paucity of data exists as to the relation of mean right atrial pressure (RAP) to Doppler parameters of right atrial and ventricular filling. Furthermore, whether echocardiographic parameters of right atrial and right ventricular function and inferior vena cava improve the relation of Doppler filling dynamics with RAP has not been explored. Doppler and echocardiographic studies were performed simultaneously with measurements of mean RAP in consecutive patients who either had a central venous catheter in the Intensive Care Unit or underwent catheterization of the right side of the heart. The initial population consisted of 35 patients with a mean age (+/-SD) of 60+/-15 years; 34% were on mechanical ventilation. Mean RAP averaged 9+/-5.7 mm Hg (range, 2 to 28 mm Hg). Among tricuspid inflow parameters, the strongest relation with RAP was observed with the ratio of early to late velocity (r=.66). For hepatic venous flow, systolic filling wave indexes had the best relation with atrial pressure, the highest being for systolic filling fraction (r=-.86). Weaker relations were noted with the use of right atrial volumes, right ventricular function, and inferior vena caval diameters. The addition of any of these variables did not improve the relation of systolic filling fraction with RAP. The regression equation (RAP=21.6-24 systolic filling fraction) was tested prospectively in the estimation of atrial pressure 50 patients. The correlation coefficient was .89 in the prospective group and .88 in the total group of 85 patients. The mean difference between predicted and actual pressures in the whole population was -0.2+/-2.6 mm Hg. The sensitivity and specificity for mean RAP>8 mm Hg were 86% and 92%, respectively. Among echocardiographic and Doppler parameters of right atrial and right ventricular function, hepatic venous flow dynamics relate best to mean atrial pressure and can be used clinically to estimate mean RAP.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Canadian Journal of General Internal Medicine
                Can Journ Gen Int Med
                Dougmar Publishing Group, Inc.
                2369-1778
                1911-1606
                March 05 2018
                March 05 2018
                : 13
                : 1
                Article
                10.22374/cjgim.v13i1.222
                16217c15-cb84-4b59-b54f-99afda4b5654
                © 2018

                Copyright of articles published in all DPG titles is retained by the author. The author grants DPG the rights to publish the article and identify itself as the original publisher. The author grants DPG exclusive commercial rights to the article. The author grants any non-commercial third party the rights to use the article freely provided original author(s) and citation details are cited. To view a copy of this license, visit https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/


                General medicine,Geriatric medicine,Neurology,Internal medicine
                General medicine, Geriatric medicine, Neurology, Internal medicine

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