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      Ultrasound guidance for placement of central venous catheters : A meta-analysis of the literature

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          Most cited references 13

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          Complications and failures of subclavian-vein catheterization.

           B. Fornage,  D Ota,  D. Hohn (1994)
          Although catheterization of the subclavian vein is a common procedure, the risk factors for complications and failures, with the exception of the physician's experience, are poorly understood. Ultrasonography has been recommended to help guide the placement of central venous catheters. We conducted a prospective randomized trial of ultrasound-guided location of the subclavian vein as compared with standard insertion procedures. In the group of patients undergoing catheterization with ultrasound guidance, the site of the insertion was marked before the catheterization attempt; real-time ultrasound guidance was not used. The 821 eligible patients (411 in the ultrasound group and 410 in the control group) underwent catheterization in a single procedure suite under controlled nonemergency conditions, in most cases for the administration of chemotherapy. Ultrasound guidance had no effect on the rate of complications or failures of subclavian-vein catheterization (risk ratio for complications, 1.00; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.66 to 1.52; risk ratio for failures, 1.04; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.72 to 1.50). In multivariate analyses, prior major surgery in the region (P = 0.002), a body-mass index (the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters) higher than 30 or lower than 20 (P = 0.009), and previous catheterization (P = 0.043) were associated with failed attempts. Complications were also associated with failed attempts: 52 of the 721 patients (7.2 percent) in whom catheterization was successful had complications, as compared with 28 of the 100 patients (28 percent) in whom physicians were unable to place catheters. The number of needle passes was strongly associated with the rates of failure and complications. The complication rate rose from 4.3 percent with one pass to 24.0 percent with more than two passes. Ultrasound guidance of subclavian-vein catheterization, as used in this study, was not beneficial. In patients at highest risk for complications and failures, catheterization should be attempted by the most experienced physicians available.
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            Ultrasound-assisted cannulation of the internal jugular vein. A prospective comparison to the external landmark-guided technique.

            Central venous access is an essential part of patient management in many clinical settings and is usually achieved with a blinded, external landmark-guided technique. The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether an ultrasound technique can improve on the traditional method. We prospectively evaluated an ultrasound-guided method in 302 patients undergoing internal jugular venous cannulation and compared the results with 302 patients in whom an external landmark-guided technique was used. Ultrasound was used exclusively in an additional 626 patients. Cannulation of the internal jugular vein was achieved in all patients (100%) using ultrasound and in 266 patients (88.1%) using the landmark-guided technique (p < 0.001). The vein was entered on the first attempt in 78% of patients using ultrasound and in 38% using the landmark technique (p < 0.001). Average access time (skin to vein) was 9.8 seconds (2-68 seconds) by the ultrasound approach and 44.5 seconds (2-1,000 seconds) by the landmark approach (p < 0.001). Using ultrasound, puncture of the carotid artery occurred in 1.7% of patients, brachial plexus irritation in 0.4%, and hematoma in 0.2%. In the external landmark group, puncture of the carotid artery occurred in 8.3% of patients (p < 0.001), brachial plexus irritation in 1.7% (p < 0.001), and hematoma in 3.3% (p < 0.001). Ultrasound-guided cannulation of the internal jugular vein significantly improves success rate, decreases access time, and reduces complication rate. These results suggest that this technique may be preferred in complicated cases or when access problems are anticipated.
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              Ultrasound-guided cannulation of the internal jugular vein. A prospective, randomized study.

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Critical Care Medicine
                Critical Care Medicine
                Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)
                0090-3493
                1996
                December 1996
                : 24
                : 12
                : 2053-2058
                Article
                10.1097/00003246-199612000-00020
                © 1996

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