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      Advances in Biosynthesis, Pharmacology, and Pharmacokinetics of Pinocembrin, a Promising Natural Small-Molecule Drug

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          Abstract

          Pinocembrin is one of the most abundant flavonoids in propolis, and it may also be widely found in a variety of plants. In addition to natural extraction, pinocembrin can be obtained by biosynthesis. Biosynthesis efficiency can be improved by a metabolic engineering strategy and a two-phase pH fermentation strategy. Pinocembrin poses an interest for its remarkable pharmacological activities, such as neuroprotection, anti-oxidation, and anti-inflammation. Studies have shown that pinocembrin works excellently in treating ischemic stroke. Pinocembrin can reduce nerve damage in the ischemic area and reduce mitochondrial dysfunction and the degree of oxidative stress. Given its significant efficacy in cerebral ischemia, pinocembrin has been approved by China Food and Drug Administration (CFDA) as a new treatment drug for ischemic stroke and is currently in progress in phase II clinical trials. Research has shown that pinocembrin can be absorbed rapidly in the body and easily cross the blood–brain barrier. In addition, the absorption/elimination process of pinocembrin occurs rapidly and shows no serious accumulation in the body. Pinocembrin has also been found to play a role in Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, and specific solid tumors, but its mechanisms of action require in-depth studies. In this review, we summarized the latest 10 years of studies on the biosynthesis, pharmacological activities, and pharmacokinetics of pinocembrin, focusing on its effects on certain diseases, aiming to explore its targets, explaining possible mechanisms of action, and finding potential therapeutic applications.

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          Most cited references72

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          Atlas of the Global Burden of Stroke (1990-2013): The GBD 2013 Study

          Background: World mapping is an important tool to visualize stroke burden and its trends in various regions and countries. Objectives: To show geographic patterns of incidence, prevalence, mortality, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and years lived with disability (YLDs) and their trends for ischemic stroke and hemorrhagic stroke in the world for 1990-2013. Methodology: Stroke incidence, prevalence, mortality, DALYs and YLDs were estimated following the general approach of the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2010 with several important improvements in methods. Data were updated for mortality (through April 2014) and stroke incidence, prevalence, case fatality and severity through 2013. Death was estimated using an ensemble modeling approach. A new software package, DisMod-MR 2.0, was used as part of a custom modeling process to estimate YLDs. All rates were age-standardized to new GBD estimates of global population. All estimates have been computed with 95% uncertainty intervals. Results: Age-standardized incidence, mortality, prevalence and DALYs/YLDs declined over the period from 1990 to 2013. However, the absolute number of people affected by stroke has substantially increased across all countries in the world over the same time period, suggesting that the global stroke burden continues to increase. There were significant geographical (country and regional) differences in stroke burden in the world, with the majority of the burden borne by low- and middle-income countries. Conclusions: Global burden of stroke has continued to increase in spite of dramatic declines in age-standardized incidence, prevalence, mortality rates and disability. Population growth and aging have played an important role in the observed increase in stroke burden.
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            Multi-target design strategies for the improved treatment of Alzheimer's disease

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              Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli for (2S)-pinocembrin production from glucose by a modular metabolic strategy.

              Flavonoids are valuable natural products widely used in human health and nutrition. Recent advances in synthetic biology and metabolic engineering have yielded improved strain titers and yields. However, current fermentation strategies often require supplementation of expensive phenylpropanoic precursors in the media and separate evaluation of each strategy in turn as part of the flavonoid pathway, implicitly assuming the modifications are additive. In this study, an Escherichia coli fermentation system was developed to bypass both of these problems. An eight-step pathway, consisting of 3-deoxy-D-arabinoheptulosonate-7-phosphate synthase (DAHPS), chorismate mutase/prephenate dehydratase (CM/PDT), phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), 4-coumarate:CoA ligase (4CL), chalcone synthase (CHS), chalcone isomerase (CHI), malonate synthetase, and malonate carrier protein, was assembled on four vectors in order to produce the flavonoid precursor (2S)-pinocembrin directly from glucose. Furthermore, a modular metabolic strategy was employed to identify conditions that optimally balance the four pathway modules. Once this metabolic balance was achieved, such strains were capable of producing 40.02mg/L (2S)-pinocembrin directly from glucose. These results were attained by culturing engineered cells in minimal medium without additional precursor supplementation. The fermentation platform described here paves the way for the development of an economical process for microbial production of flavonoids directly from glucose. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Academic Editor
                Role: Academic Editor
                Journal
                Molecules
                Molecules
                molecules
                Molecules
                MDPI
                1420-3049
                24 June 2019
                June 2019
                : 24
                : 12
                : 2323
                Affiliations
                Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100193, China; 15189806892@ 123456163.com (X.S.); lyj18811358958@ 123456163.com (Y.L.); 18804897936@ 123456163.com (X.L.)
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: zhyang@ 123456implad.ac.cn ; Tel.: +86-10-57833219
                Article
                molecules-24-02323
                10.3390/molecules24122323
                6631290
                31238565
                16e27f2d-f75b-41db-a17c-599177fbc144
                © 2019 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                History
                : 31 May 2019
                : 23 June 2019
                Categories
                Review

                pinocembrin,microbial biosynthesis,pharmacological activities,pharmacokinetic features,research progress

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