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      Evolutionary Dynamics of the Spindle Assembly Checkpoint in Eukaryotes

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      Current Biology

      Elsevier BV

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          The complete genome sequence of a Neandertal from the Altai Mountains

          We present a high-quality genome sequence of a Neandertal woman from Siberia. We show that her parents were related at the level of half siblings and that mating among close relatives was common among her recent ancestors. We also sequenced the genome of a Neandertal from the Caucasus to low coverage. An analysis of the relationships and population history of available archaic genomes and 25 present-day human genomes shows that several gene flow events occurred among Neandertals, Denisovans and early modern humans, possibly including gene flow into Denisovans from an unknown archaic group. Thus, interbreeding, albeit of low magnitude, occurred among many hominin groups in the Late Pleistocene. In addition, the high quality Neandertal genome allows us to establish a definitive list of substitutions that became fixed in modern humans after their separation from the ancestors of Neandertals and Denisovans.
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            Is Open Access

            MEME Suite: tools for motif discovery and searching

            The MEME Suite web server provides a unified portal for online discovery and analysis of sequence motifs representing features such as DNA binding sites and protein interaction domains. The popular MEME motif discovery algorithm is now complemented by the GLAM2 algorithm which allows discovery of motifs containing gaps. Three sequence scanning algorithms—MAST, FIMO and GLAM2SCAN—allow scanning numerous DNA and protein sequence databases for motifs discovered by MEME and GLAM2. Transcription factor motifs (including those discovered using MEME) can be compared with motifs in many popular motif databases using the motif database scanning algorithm Tomtom. Transcription factor motifs can be further analyzed for putative function by association with Gene Ontology (GO) terms using the motif-GO term association tool GOMO. MEME output now contains sequence LOGOS for each discovered motif, as well as buttons to allow motifs to be conveniently submitted to the sequence and motif database scanning algorithms (MAST, FIMO and Tomtom), or to GOMO, for further analysis. GLAM2 output similarly contains buttons for further analysis using GLAM2SCAN and for rerunning GLAM2 with different parameters. All of the motif-based tools are now implemented as web services via Opal. Source code, binaries and a web server are freely available for noncommercial use at http://meme.nbcr.net.
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              The conserved KMN network constitutes the core microtubule-binding site of the kinetochore.

              The microtubule-binding interface of the kinetochore is of central importance in chromosome segregation. Although kinetochore components that stabilize, translocate on, and affect the polymerization state of microtubules have been identified, none have proven essential for kinetochore-microtubule interactions. Here, we examined the conserved KNL-1/Mis12 complex/Ndc80 complex (KMN) network, which is essential for kinetochore-microtubule interactions in vivo. We identified two distinct microtubule-binding activities within the KMN network: one associated with the Ndc80/Nuf2 subunits of the Ndc80 complex, and a second in KNL-1. Formation of the complete KMN network, which additionally requires the Mis12 complex and the Spc24/Spc25 subunits of the Ndc80 complex, synergistically enhances microtubule-binding activity. Phosphorylation by Aurora B, which corrects improper kinetochore-microtubule connections in vivo, reduces the affinity of the Ndc80 complex for microtubules in vitro. Based on these findings, we propose that the conserved KMN network constitutes the core microtubule-binding site of the kinetochore.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
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                Journal
                Current Biology
                Current Biology
                Elsevier BV
                09609822
                May 2020
                May 2020
                : 30
                : 10
                : R589-R602
                Article
                10.1016/j.cub.2020.02.021
                © 2020

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