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      The impact of daylight on suicide rates

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      Economics & Human Biology
      Elsevier BV

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          Abstract

          Since Durkheim and Morselli found a spring peak in suicides in the late 19th century, researchers have presented possible explanations, including daylight variation, for this seasonal pattern. Our identification strategy exploits the idiosyncratic variation in daylight within Norwegian regions, arising from the country's substantial latitudinal range. We use full population data for a period of 45 years in a pre-registered research design. We find a small and non-significant relationship: One extra hour of daylight increases the suicide rate by merely 0.75 % (95 % CI: -0.4 % to 1.9 %).

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          Methods of suicide: international suicide patterns derived from the WHO mortality database

          OBJECTIVE: Accurate information about preferred suicide methods is important for devising strategies and programmes for suicide prevention. Our knowledge of the methods used and their variation across countries and world regions is still limited. The aim of this study was to provide the first comprehensive overview of international patterns of suicide methods. METHODS: Data encoded according to the International Classification of Diseases (10th revision) were derived from the WHO mortality database. The classification was used to differentiate suicide methods. Correspondence analysis was used to identify typical patterns of suicide methods in different countries by providing a summary of cross-tabulated data. FINDINGS: Poisoning by pesticide was common in many Asian countries and in Latin America; poisoning by drugs was common in both Nordic countries and the United Kingdom. Hanging was the preferred method of suicide in eastern Europe, as was firearm suicide in the United States and jumping from a high place in cities and urban societies such as Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China. Correspondence analysis demonstrated a polarization between pesticide suicide and firearm suicide at the expense of traditional methods, such as hanging and jumping from a high place, which lay in between. CONCLUSION: This analysis showed that pesticide suicide and firearm suicide replaced traditional methods in many countries. The observed suicide pattern depended upon the availability of the methods used, in particular the availability of technical means. The present evidence indicates that restricting access to the means of suicide is more urgent and more technically feasible than ever.
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            Suicide and seasonality.

              Seasonal variation of deaths by suicide offers an important pathway in the study of possible suicide determinants of suicide and consequently suicide prevention.   We conducted a review of the literature on suicide seasonality, assessing articles published between 1979 and 2009.   The majority of the studies confirm a peak in spring, mainly for men, older individuals, and violent methods of suicide. A secondary peak during autumn is observed. There is no common seasonality pattern for suicide methods. However, there are also certain studies that did not confirm seasonal variation. Inconsistent results with reduced, unchanged, and even increased suicide seasonality have been reported. Aspects on the association between seasonality and suicides are discussed. Except sex, age, and method of suicide, other parameters were taken into account to find more specific characteristics of seasonality in suicides as well. The influence of clinical, bioclimatic, sociodemographic as well as biological factors seems to affect the seasonal variation.   Studies from both the Northern and the Southern hemisphere report a seasonal pattern for suicides. These studies are not only an important source of epidemiological data for suicides but also represent a global effort to uncover hidden parameters of this self-destructive behaviour. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
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              Is violent method of suicide a behavioral marker of lifetime aggression?

              The main purpose of this study was to investigate whether the method of suicide is a valid behavioral marker of a lifetime history of aggression. The authors applied the psychological autopsy method to investigate 310 individuals who committed suicide. They used structured clinical assessments and personality trait scales in interviews with family members of the deceased. Violent method was associated with a higher level of lifetime aggression and a higher level of impulsivity. In addition, violent method was associated with lifetime substance abuse or dependence and psychotic disorders. Controlling for age, sex, substance disorders, and other major psychopathology, the authors found that lifetime aggression and the interaction between impulsivity and aggressive behavior remained associated with violent method. These results support the use of violent method of suicide as a behavioral marker of a higher level of lifetime impulsive-aggressive behaviors.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Economics & Human Biology
                Economics & Human Biology
                Elsevier BV
                1570677X
                August 2022
                August 2022
                : 46
                : 101151
                Article
                10.1016/j.ehb.2022.101151
                35717823
                17f9e897-240b-42cc-95f3-c33523af6716
                © 2022

                https://www.elsevier.com/tdm/userlicense/1.0/

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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