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      Automated systems in the identification and determination of methicillin resistance among coagulase negative staphylococci

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          Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are an important cause of nosocomial bacteremia, specially in patients with indwelling devices or those submitted to invasive medical procedures. The identification of species and the accurate and rapid detection of methicillin resistance are directly dependent on the quality of the identification and susceptibility tests used, either manual or automated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of two automated systems MicroScan and Vitek - in the identification of CoNS species and determination of susceptibility to methicillin, considering as gold standard the biochemical tests and the characterization of the mecA gene by polymerase chain reaction, respectively. MicroScan presented better results in the identification of CoNS species (accuracy of 96.8 vs 78.8%, respectively); isolates from the following species had no precise identification: Staphylococcus haemolyticus, S. simulans, and S. capitis. Both systems were similar in the characterization of methicillin resistance. The higher discrepancies for gene mec detection were observed among species other than S. epidermidis (S. hominis, S. saprophyticus, S. sciuri, S. haemolyticus, S. warneri, S. cohnii), and those with borderline MICs.

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          Most cited references 15

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          Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing: Fourteenth Informational supplement

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            Methods for improved detection of oxacillin resistance in coagulase-negative staphylococci: results of a multicenter study.

            A multilaboratory study was undertaken to determine the accuracy of the current National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) oxacillin breakpoints for broth microdilution and disk diffusion testing of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) by using a PCR assay for mecA as the reference method. Fifty well-characterized strains of CoNS were tested for oxacillin susceptibility by the NCCLS broth microdilution and disk diffusion procedures in 11 laboratories. In addition, organisms were inoculated onto a pair of commercially prepared oxacillin agar screen plates containing 6 microg of oxacillin per ml and 4% NaCl. The results of this study and of several other published reports suggest that, in order to reliably detect the presence of resistance mediated by mecA, the oxacillin MIC breakpoint for defining resistance in CoNS should be lowered from >/=4 to >/=0.5 microg/ml and the breakpoint for susceptibility should be lowered from /=18 mm for susceptibility is suggested. Due to the poor sensitivity of the oxacillin agar screen plate for predicting resistance in this study, this test can no longer be recommended for use with CoNS. The proposed interpretive criteria for testing CoNS have been adopted by the NCCLS.
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              DNA typing of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: isolates and factors associated with nosocomial acquisition in two Brazilian university hospitals

              Control and prevention of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections should include early identification of patients at higher risk of MRSA acquisition and analysis of isolates by discriminatory bacterial DNA typing methods. One hundred and three MRSA isolates cultured between Sept. 1994 and Sept. 1995 from 62 patients in two teaching hospitals (hospital 1, in Rio de Janeiro; hospital 2, in Minas Gerais) were tested for antimicrobial resistance and genomic DNA was analysed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Ten profiles were identified: A, B, C, I and J in hospital 1 and A, B, D, E, F, G and H in hospital 2. PFGE patterns A and B were isolated at both hospitals. The majority (80%) of isolates had similar PFGE patterns (type A). Subtype A1 was isolated at both hospitals, but was more frequent in hospital 2 (54%), while subtype A2 predominated in hospital 1 (63%). MRSA isolates were resistant to the majority of antimicrobial agents tested. However, susceptibility to vancomycin alone was found in 32% of the isolates at hospital 1, whereas 48% of isolates from hospital 2 were susceptible to both vancomycin and mupirocin, and 34% demonstrated susceptibility to vancomycin, mupirocin and chloramphenicol. Thirty-nine percent of all isolates were mupirocin-resistant, with 90% of these belonging to PFGE pattern A. Four main risk factors were associated with MRSA infection or colonisation which may be useful in the early identification of patients at risk: >7 days hospitalisation (95%), very dependent patients (84%), invasive procedures (79%) and recent antimicrobial therapy (79%). The data demonstrate that PFGE pattern A is disseminated in both hospitals. However, at both hospitals subtypes of pattern A and the other PFGE types were associated with different antibiotic resistance patterns.

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                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
                Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz
                Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde (Rio de Janeiro )
                May 2006
                : 101
                : 3
                : 277-280
                [1 ] Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre Brazil
                [2 ] Laboratório de Bacteriologia do Hospital Mãe de Deus Brasil


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