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Optical coherence tomography imaging of non-melanoma skin cancer undergoing photodynamic therapy reveals subclinical residual lesions

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      Optical coherence tomography in dermatology: a review.

       J Welzel (2001)
      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive technique for morphological investigation of tissue. Since its development in the late 1980s it is mainly used as a diagnostic tool in ophthalmology. For examination of a highly scattering tissue like the skin, it was necessary to modify the method. Early studies on the value of OCT for skin diagnosis gave promising results. The OCT technique is based on the principle of Michelson interferometry. The light sources used for OCT are low coherent superluminescent diodes operating at a wavelength of about 1300 nm. OCT provides two-dimensional images with a scan length of a few millimeters (mm), a resolution of about 15 microns and a maximum detection depth of 1.5 mm. The image acquisition can be performed nearly in real time. The measurement is non-invasive and with no side effects. The in vivo OCT images of human skin show a strong scattering from tissue with a few layers and some optical inhomogeneities. The resolution enables the visualization of architectural changes, but not of single cells. In palmoplantar skin, the thick stratum comeum is visible as a low-scattering superficial well defined layer with spiral sweat gland ducts inside. The epidermis can be distinguished from the dermis. Adnexal structures and blood vessels are low-scattering regions in the upper dermis. Skin tumors show a homogenous signal distribution. In some cases, tumor borders to healthy skin are detectable. Inflammatory skin diseases lead to changes of the OCT image, such as thickening of the epidermis and reduction of the light attenuation in the dermis. A quantification of treatment effects, such as swelling of the horny layer due to application of a moisturizer, is possible. Repeated measurements allow a monitoring of the changes over time. OCT is a promising new bioengineering method for investigation of skin morphology. In some cases it may be useful for diagnosis of skin diseases. Because of its non-invasive character, the technique allows monitoring of inflammatory diseases over time. An objective quantification of the efficacy and tolerance of topical treatment is also possible. Due to the high resolution and simple application, OCT is an interesting addition to other morphological techniques in dermatology.
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        Guidelines for topical photodynamic therapy: update.

         K McKenna,  Lesley Rhodes,   (2008)
        Multicentre randomized controlled studies now demonstrate high efficacy of topical photodynamic therapy (PDT) for actinic keratoses, Bowen's disease (BD) and superficial basal cell carcinoma (BCC), and efficacy in thin nodular BCC, while confirming the superiority of cosmetic outcome over standard therapies. Long-term follow-up studies are also now available, indicating that PDT has recurrence rates equivalent to other standard therapies in BD and superficial BCC, but with lower sustained efficacy than surgery in nodular BCC. In contrast, current evidence does not support the use of topical PDT for squamous cell carcinoma. PDT can reduce the number of new lesions developing in patients at high risk of skin cancer and may have a role as a preventive therapy. Case reports and small series attest to the potential of PDT in a wide range of inflammatory/infective dermatoses, although recent studies indicate insufficient evidence to support its use in psoriasis. There is an accumulating evidence base for the use of PDT in acne, while detailed study of an optimized protocol is still required. In addition to high-quality treatment site cosmesis, several studies observe improvements in aspects of photoageing. Management of treatment-related pain/discomfort is a challenge in a minority of patients, and the modality is otherwise well tolerated. Long-term studies provide reassurance over the safety of repeated use of PDT.
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          A double-blind, vehicle-controlled study evaluating masoprocol cream in the treatment of actinic keratoses on the head and neck.

          This double-blind, vehicle-controlled, multicenter study evaluated the efficacy and safety of a new topical antineoplastic agent, masoprocol, in the treatment of actinic keratoses of the head and neck. Of the 113 patients who applied topical masoprocol twice a day for 14 to 28 days, there was a mean decrease in actinic keratoses from 15.0 to 5.4 and a median percent reduction from baseline actinic keratosis count of 71.4% at the 1-month follow-up visit. Comparable numbers for the vehicle-treated group were 13.4 to 11.1 actinic keratoses and 4.3% median percent reduction. Irritation, as manifested by erythema or flaking, occurred in 61.5% of topical masoprocol-treated patients versus 26.7% of those treated with vehicle and did not correlate with clinical response. Topical masoprocol appears to be useful in the treatment of actinic keratoses.
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            Author and article information

            Journal
            Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
            Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
            Elsevier BV
            15721000
            March 2014
            March 2014
            : 11
            : 1
            : 7-12
            10.1016/j.pdpdt.2013.11.003
            © 2014

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