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      Clinical Benefit of Preserving Residual Renal Function in Patients after Initiation of Dialysis

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          Preserving residual renal function (RRF) after initiation of dialysis therapy is desirable for improving quality of life in ESRD patients. It has been believed that RRF declines more slowly in patients receiving continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) than in patients treated with other forms of maintenance dialysis. Episodes of intravascular volume depletion might be expected to cause more rapid loss of RRF, and are more frequent in patients on hemodialysis, which is intermittent therapy. However, recently it was demonstrated that in hemodialysis using high-flux biocompatible membrane and ultrapure water, RRF declines at a rate indistinguishable from that in CAPD. The HDF using ultrapure dialysate and the substitution fluid may show to preserve RRF as well as CAPD patients. In future, it might be a major concern for the assessment of the HDF by a multicenter clinical study for preserving RRF.

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          The contribution of residual renal function to overall nutritional status in chronic haemodialysis patients.

          The benefits of residual renal function (RRF) in peritoneal dialysis patients have been described frequently. However, previous reports have shown that RRF diminished faster in haemodialysis (HD) patients than in peritoneal dialysis patients, and in most of the studies in HD patients, RRF was ignored. In this study, the RRF in chronic HD patients was studied to assess its impact on patients' nutritional status. In 41 chronic HD patients with at least a 2-year history of HD treatment, RRF was determined by a urine collection for 7 consecutive days. Nutritional parameters, such as percentage body fat, fat-free mass index, serum albumin concentration and normalized protein catabolic rate, were also measured. In all 41 patients, mean weekly total Kt/V urea was 4.88 and renal Kt/V urea was 0.65. RRF was well correlated with serum albumin concentration, but dialysis Kt/V urea was not. One year after the start of this study, RRF and nutritional indices were re-examined and patients were classified into two groups: with RRF, preserved residual renal diuresis over 200 ml/day (mean, 720 ml; range, 230-1640 ml), N=23; and without RRF, persistent anuria (mean, 51 ml; range, 0-190 ml), N=18. At the start of this study, the mean serum albumin concentration and mean normalized protein catabolic rate in patients with RRF were 3.84 g/dl and 1.16 g/kg/day, respectively, which were significantly higher than those in patients without RRF (P=0.02 and P=0.0002, respectively), despite total (renal+dialysis) Kt/V urea being equal in both groups. During the 1-year study period, there was no significant change in total Kt/V urea in either group. Mean serum albumin concentration increased to 4.05 g/dl in patients with RRF, but did not change significantly (from 3.66 to 3.62 g/dl) in patients without RRF. The same trend was observed in all other parameters. Over half of our HD patients had sufficient RRF. RRF itself may have a beneficial effect on nutritional parameters, and it is important to determine RRF over time, even in chronic HD patients.
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            Identical decline of residual renal function in high-flux biocompatible hemodialysis and CAPD.

            Patients on conventional hemodialysis lose residual renal function more rapidly than patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). The effect of dialysis using synthetic membranes and ultrapure water is less clear. The decline of urea clearance was compared in a cohort of 475 incident end-stage renal failure patients who received treatment with CAPD (N=175) or hemodialysis (HD) utilizing high-flux polysulphone membranes, ultrapure water, and bicarbonate as the buffer (N=300). CAPD patients were significantly younger, fitter (lower comorbidity severity score), less dependent (higher Karnofsky performance score) and less likely to have presented late than HD patients. There was no difference in the mean urea clearance in each group at dialysis initiation, or at any 6-month time point during the ensuing 48 months. This was true even after exclusion of patients who had died in the first year after initiation, those transferred to another dialysis modality, or those who had been transplanted. Only age and chronic interstitial disease predicted retention of urea clearance at one year. The rate of decline of urea clearance was similar in pre- and post-dialysis initiation phases, though there may have been a step-decline of about 2 mL/min at initiation, which requires further investigation. In hemodialysis using high-flux biocompatible membranes and ultrapure water, residual renal function declines at a rate indistinguishable from that in CAPD. This may have important implications, since preservation of residual renal function has major benefits and is a valid therapeutic goal.
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              Ultrapure dialysis fluid slows loss of residual renal function in new dialysis patients.

              Residual renal function is beneficial for adequacy of haemodialysis, quality of life and mortality in dialysis patients. Our prospective randomised investigation aimed to analyse the effects of the microbiological quality of dialysis fluid on the course of residual renal function after initiation of haemodialysis. Thirty patients starting haemodialysis were randomly assigned to ultrapure or conventional dialysate. During the 24-month study period, creatinine clearance, CRP and IL-6 levels, hydration status, number of hypotensive episodes and blood pressure recordings were assessed every 6 months. Residual renal function declined in both groups during the study period, although there were no statistically significant differences in demographic (age, gender), renal (cause of end-stage renal disease, residual renal function, hypertension, ACE inhibitors) and treatment characteristics (Kt/V urea) at recruitment. The use of mildly contaminated (up to 300 CFU/ml) dialysate resulted in higher CRP and IL-6 levels and more pronounced loss of residual renal function. Multiple regression analysis showed that the microbiological quality of the dialysate is an independent determinant of the loss of residual renal function. Ultrapure dialysis fluid combined with high-flux synthetic membranes are effective components of renal replacement therapy to slow the loss of residual renal function in haemodialysis patients. These improvements of haemodialysis are desirable, but add to treatment costs.

                Author and article information

                Blood Purif
                Blood Purification
                S. Karger AG
                January 2005
                27 January 2005
                : 22
                : Suppl 2
                : 67-71
                Second Department of Internal Medicine, Nihon University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan
                81878 Blood Purif 2004;22(suppl 2):67–71
                © 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 1, References: 11, Pages: 5
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