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      Brain-derived neurotrophic factor secreted by the cerebral endothelium: A new actor of brain function?

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          Abstract

          <p class="first" id="d434583e179">Low cerebral levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which plays a critical role in many brain functions, have been implicated in neurodegenerative, neurological and psychiatric diseases. Thus, increasing BDNF levels in the brain is considered an attractive possibility for the prevention/treatment of various brain diseases. To date, BDNF-based therapies have largely focused on neurons. However, given the cross-talk between endothelial cells and neurons and recent evidence that BDNF expressed by the cerebral endothelium largely accounts for BDNF levels present in the brain, it is likely that BDNF-based therapies would be most effective if they also targeted the cerebral endothelium. In this review, we summarize the available knowledge about the biology and actions of BDNF derived from endothelial cells of the cerebral microvasculature and we emphasize the remaining gaps and shortcomings. </p>

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          Most cited references 93

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          The BDNF val66met Polymorphism Affects Activity-Dependent Secretion of BDNF and Human Memory and Hippocampal Function

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            Decreased serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in major depressed patients.

            Recent findings with animal models have suggested a possible role for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in depression. We have therefore hypothesized that depression could be characterized by low levels of serum BDNF. Major depressed patients (15F + 15M) diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria and healthy controls (15F + 15M) participated in the study. Serum BDNF was assayed with the ELISA method and the severity of depression was evaluated with Montgomery-Asberg-Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). BDNF levels were significantly lower in patients than in controls: 22.6 +/- 3 and 26.5 +/- 7 ng/ml (t-test = 2.7; d.f. = 58; P < 0.01). They were negatively correlated to the MADRS scores (r = -0.55; P < 0.02). Female patients were more depressed and released less BDNF than men. Analysis of covariance (MADRS and gender as independent variable vs. BDNF as dependent variable) indicated that depression severity mainly accounted for the negative correlation. These results suggest that major depression is characterized by low serum BDNF levels and support the hypothesis of neurotrophic factor involvement in affective disorders.
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              Variant brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) (Met66) alters the intracellular trafficking and activity-dependent secretion of wild-type BDNF in neurosecretory cells and cortical neurons.

              Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a critical role in nervous system and cardiovascular development and function. Recently, a common single nucleotide polymorphism in the bdnf gene, resulting in a valine to methionine substitution in the prodomain (BDNF(Met)), has been shown to lead to memory impairment and susceptibility to neuropsychiatric disorders in humans heterozygous for the variant BDNF. When expressed by itself in hippocampal neurons, less BDNF(Met) is secreted in an activity-dependent manner. The nature of the cellular defect when both BDNF(Met) and wild-type BDNF (BDNF(Val)) are present in the same cell is not known. Given that this is the predominant expression profile in humans, we examined the effect of coexpressed BDNF(Met) on BDNF(Val) intracellular trafficking and processing. Our data indicate that abnormal trafficking of BDNF(Met) occurred only in neuronal and neurosecretory cells and that BDNF(Met) could alter the intracellular distribution and activity-dependent secretion of BDNF(Val). We determined that, when coexpressed in the same cell, approximately 70% of the variant BDNF forms BDNF(Val).BDNF(Met) heterodimers, which are inefficiently sorted into secretory granules resulting in a quantitative decreased secretion. Finally, we determined the form of BDNF secreted in an activity-dependent manner and observed no differences in the forms of BDNF(Met) or the BDNF(Val).BDNF(Met) heterodimer compared with BDNF(Val). Together, these findings indicate that components of the regulated secretory machinery interacts specifically with a signal in the BDNF prodomain and that perturbations in BDNF trafficking may lead to selective impairment in CNS function.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism
                J Cereb Blood Flow Metab
                SAGE Publications
                0271-678X
                1559-7016
                June 2017
                June 2018
                March 20 2018
                June 2018
                : 38
                : 6
                : 935-949
                Affiliations
                [1 ]INSERM U1093, Univ. Bourgogne Franche-Comté, Dijon, France
                [2 ]Service de Neurologie, CHRU, Dijon, France
                [3 ]EA4267 PEPITE, FHU INCREASE, Univ. Bourgogne Franche-Comté, Besançon, France
                Article
                10.1177/0271678X18766772
                5998997
                29557702
                © 2018

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