Blog
About

0
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Editorial: Physical Activity: Epigenetic and Metabolic Regulation of Brain Aging

      Read this article at

      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Physical activity (PA) exerts several benefits in the prevention and delay of age-related cognitive decline and the subsequent development of age-related neurodegenerative diseases (de Freitas et al., 2020). At the molecular level, these positive effects have been related to bioenergetic challenges and to the activation of transcription factors that induce the expression of proteins strengthening neurons' resistance to metabolic, oxidative, excitotoxic, and proteotoxic stresses (Daniele et al., 2018). Moreover, several brain functions are mediated by epigenetic regulation of neural genes, and their dysregulations result in neuronal disorders (Bertogliat et al., 2020). This Research Topic provided overview of the current knowledge on the epigenetic and metabolic modifications in response to physical activity. In this special issue, papers examined the role of intracellular signals, cell metabolism, and epigenetics assisted with the beneficial effects of exercise on brain health. Zhang et al. reported that voluntary wheel running exercise improved cognitive deficits and attenuated the Aβ deposits in the hippocampus of APP/PS1 Alzheimer's disease (AD) model transgenic mice. Importantly, the authors demonstrate that treadmill exercise results in modulating microglia-related neuroinflammation in the early stage of AD pathology progression. The PA significantly reduced the gene transcription of inflammatory cytokine tumor-necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1-beta (IL-1β) thereby attenuating the production and deposition of Ab, and cognitive impairment. These results deeply elucidate the mechanisms underlying the positive effects of PA on AD progression that has been widely reported in literature (Lin et al., 2015; Xiong et al., 2015). It has been widely accepted that different exercise regimes evoke several beneficial effects in various brain functions (Liu et al., 2019). Another pivotal parameter that affects the potential benefits of the PA is the exercise modes. In this sense, the practice of open-skill exercises (i.e., badminton, football, tennis) and closed-skill exercises (i.e., swimming, jogging, cycling,) has been associated with an improvement of working memories (Chen F-T. et al.). Interestingly, the open-skill PA caused an improvement of neural activation in the prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortex regions in middle-aged adults. Exercise interventions have been shown to attenuate brain aging via restoring Wnt signaling and corresponding targets, including PI3K/Akt pathway (Chen D. et al.). Moreover, the signals related to insulin resistance has been demonstrated as an independent predictor of postoperative cognitive dysfunction in aging population who undergo surgery, and, in this view, exercise may be considered an effective intervention of patients at risk (He et al.). Concerning the role of epigenetics, a contributing review has summarized the impact of exercise on cognitive function and brain health, through the modulation of DNA methylation, and has a great potential as a non-pharmaceutical intervention to mitigate brain decline in women with breast cancer (Wagner et al.). Another brief overview summarized the current understanding of mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's Disease, by considering physical activity as a non-pharmacological intervention in neuroprotection (Cammisuli et al.). To date, several reports provide data on the positive correlation of PA and the improvement of brain functions in the population. However, the molecular mechanisms and the epigenetic regulation involved in this action is still unclear and is a fascinating area of investigation for the scientific community. Author Contributions All authors listed have made a substantial, direct and intellectual contribution to the work, and approved it for publication. Conflict of Interest The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 5

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: found
          Is Open Access

          Long-term treadmill exercise improves spatial memory of male APPswe/PS1dE9 mice by regulation of BDNF expression and microglia activation

          Increasing evidence suggests that physical activity could delay or attenuate the symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (AD). But the underlying mechanisms are still not fully understood. To investigate the effect of long-term treadmill exercise on the spatial memory of AD mice and the possible role of β-amyloid, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and microglia in the effect, male APPswe/PS1dE9 AD mice aged 4 months were subjected to treadmill exercise for 5 months with 6 sessions per week and gradually increased load. A Morris water maze was used to evaluate the spatial memory. Expression levels of β-amyloid, BDNF and Iba-1 (a microglia marker) in brain tissue were detected by immunohistochemistry. Sedentary AD mice and wildtype C57BL/6J mice served as controls. The results showed that 5-month treadmill exercise significantly decreased the escape latencies (P 0.05). The study suggested that long-term treadmill exercise could improve the spatial memory of the male APPswe/PS1dE9 AD mice. The increase in BDNF-positive cells and decrease in activated microglia might underpin the beneficial effect.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: not found
            • Article: not found

            Brain ageing and neurodegenerative disease: The role of cellular waste management

              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: not found
              • Article: not found

              The beneficial effects of physical exercise in the brain and related pathophysiological mechanisms in neurodegenerative diseases

               Yan Liu,  Tim Yan,  John Chu (2019)
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Aging Neurosci
                Front Aging Neurosci
                Front. Aging Neurosci.
                Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1663-4365
                17 July 2020
                2020
                : 12
                Affiliations
                1Department of Pharmacy, University of Pisa , Pisa, Italy
                2Department of Health, Exercise Science and Recreation Management, University of Mississippi , Oxford, MS, United States
                3Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa , Pisa, Italy
                Author notes

                Edited and reviewed by: Thomas Wisniewski, New York University, United States

                *Correspondence: Ferdinando Franzoni ferdinando.franzoni@ 123456unipi.it

                †These authors have contributed equally to this work

                Article
                10.3389/fnagi.2020.00195
                7379880
                Copyright © 2020 Daniele, Giacomelli, Loprinzi and Franzoni.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 6, Pages: 2, Words: 1049
                Categories
                Neuroscience
                Editorial

                Comments

                Comment on this article