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      Strategies to increase nitric oxide signalling in cardiovascular disease

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          Abstract

          Nitric oxide (NO) is a key signalling molecule in the cardiovascular, immune and central nervous systems, and crucial steps in the regulation of NO bioavailability in health and disease are well characterized. Although early approaches to therapeutically modulate NO bioavailability failed in clinical trials, an enhanced understanding of fundamental subcellular signalling has enabled a range of novel therapeutic approaches to be identified. These include the identification of: new pathways for enhancing NO synthase activity; ways to amplify the nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway; novel classes of NO-donating drugs; drugs that limit NO metabolism through effects on reactive oxygen species; and ways to modulate downstream phosphodiesterases and soluble guanylyl cyclases. In this Review, we discuss these latest developments, with a focus on cardiovascular disease.

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          Antioxidants prevent health-promoting effects of physical exercise in humans.

          Exercise promotes longevity and ameliorates type 2 diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance. However, exercise also increases mitochondrial formation of presumably harmful reactive oxygen species (ROS). Antioxidants are widely used as supplements but whether they affect the health-promoting effects of exercise is unknown. We evaluated the effects of a combination of vitamin C (1000 mg/day) and vitamin E (400 IU/day) on insulin sensitivity as measured by glucose infusion rates (GIR) during a hyperinsulinemic, euglycemic clamp in previously untrained (n = 19) and pretrained (n = 20) healthy young men. Before and after a 4 week intervention of physical exercise, GIR was determined, and muscle biopsies for gene expression analyses as well as plasma samples were obtained to compare changes over baseline and potential influences of vitamins on exercise effects. Exercise increased parameters of insulin sensitivity (GIR and plasma adiponectin) only in the absence of antioxidants in both previously untrained (P < 0.001) and pretrained (P < 0.001) individuals. This was paralleled by increased expression of ROS-sensitive transcriptional regulators of insulin sensitivity and ROS defense capacity, peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma), and PPARgamma coactivators PGC1alpha and PGC1beta only in the absence of antioxidants (P < 0.001 for all). Molecular mediators of endogenous ROS defense (superoxide dismutases 1 and 2; glutathione peroxidase) were also induced by exercise, and this effect too was blocked by antioxidant supplementation. Consistent with the concept of mitohormesis, exercise-induced oxidative stress ameliorates insulin resistance and causes an adaptive response promoting endogenous antioxidant defense capacity. Supplementation with antioxidants may preclude these health-promoting effects of exercise in humans.
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            Peroxynitrite: biochemistry, pathophysiology and development of therapeutics.

            Peroxynitrite--the product of the diffusion-controlled reaction of nitric oxide with superoxide radical--is a short-lived oxidant species that is a potent inducer of cell death. Conditions in which the reaction products of peroxynitrite have been detected and in which pharmacological inhibition of its formation or its decomposition have been shown to be of benefit include vascular diseases, ischaemia-reperfusion injury, circulatory shock, inflammation, pain and neurodegeneration. In this Review, we first discuss the biochemistry and pathophysiology of peroxynitrite and then focus on pharmacological strategies to attenuate the toxic effects of peroxynitrite. These include its catalytic reduction to nitrite and its isomerization to nitrate by metalloporphyrins, which have led to potential candidates for drug development for cardiovascular, inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases.
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              Apparent hydroxyl radical production by peroxynitrite: implications for endothelial injury from nitric oxide and superoxide.

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nature Reviews Drug Discovery
                Nat Rev Drug Discov
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                1474-1776
                1474-1784
                September 2015
                August 7 2015
                September 2015
                : 14
                : 9
                : 623-641
                Article
                10.1038/nrd4623
                26265312
                1bd943c9-d7fe-4e22-9b38-9541520b2739
                © 2015

                http://www.springer.com/tdm

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