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      A review on plants extract mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles for antimicrobial applications: A green expertise


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          Metallic nanoparticles are being utilized in every phase of science along with engineering including medical fields and are still charming the scientists to explore new dimensions for their respective worth which is generally attributed to their corresponding small sizes. The up-and-coming researches have proven their antimicrobial significance. Among several noble metal nanoparticles, silver nanoparticles have attained a special focus. Conventionally silver nanoparticles are synthesized by chemical method using chemicals as reducing agents which later on become accountable for various biological risks due to their general toxicity; engendering the serious concern to develop environment friendly processes. Thus, to solve the objective; biological approaches are coming up to fill the void; for instance green syntheses using biological molecules derived from plant sources in the form of extracts exhibiting superiority over chemical and/or biological methods. These plant based biological molecules undergo highly controlled assembly for making them suitable for the metal nanoparticle syntheses. The present review explores the huge plant diversity to be utilized towards rapid and single step protocol preparatory method with green principles over the conventional ones and describes the antimicrobial activities of silver nanoparticles.

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          Most cited references83

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          Selective colorimetric detection of polynucleotides based on the distance-dependent optical properties of gold nanoparticles.

          A highly selective, colorimetric polynucleotide detection method based on mercaptoalkyloligonucleotide-modified gold nanoparticle probes is reported. Introduction of a single-stranded target oligonucleotide (30 bases) into a solution containing the appropriate probes resulted in the formation of a polymeric network of nanoparticles with a concomitant red-to-pinkish/purple color change. Hybridization was facilitated by freezing and thawing of the solutions, and the denaturation of these hybrid materials showed transition temperatures over a narrow range that allowed differentiation of a variety of imperfect targets. Transfer of the hybridization mixture to a reverse-phase silica plate resulted in a blue color upon drying that could be detected visually. The unoptimized system can detect about 10 femtomoles of an oligonucleotide.
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            A nanoscale optical biosensor: sensitivity and selectivity of an approach based on the localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of triangular silver nanoparticles.

            Triangular silver nanoparticles ( approximately 100 nm wide and 50 nm high) have remarkable optical properties. In particular, the peak extinction wavelength, lambda(max) of their localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) spectrum is unexpectedly sensitive to nanoparticle size, shape, and local ( approximately 10-30 nm) external dielectric environment. This sensitivity of the LSPR lambda(max) to the nanoenvironment has allowed us to develop a new class of nanoscale affinity biosensors. The essential characteristics and operational principles of these LSPR nanobiosensors will be illustrated using the well-studied biotin-streptavidin system. Exposure of biotin-functionalized Ag nanotriangles to 100 nM streptavidin (SA) caused a 27.0 nm red-shift in the LSPR lambda(max). The LSPR lambda(max) shift, DeltaR/DeltaR(max), versus [SA] response curve was measured over the concentration range 10(-)(15) M < [SA] < 10(-)(6) M. Comparison of the data with the theoretical normalized response expected for 1:1 binding of a ligand to a multivalent receptor with different sites but invariant affinities yielded approximate values for the saturation response, DeltaR(max) = 26.5 nm, and the surface-confined thermodynamic binding constant K(a,surf) = 10(11) M(-)(1). At present, the limit of detection (LOD) for the LSPR nanobiosensor is found to be in the low-picomolar to high-femtomolar region. A strategy to amplify the response of the LSPR nanobiosensor using biotinylated Au colloids and thereby further improve the LOD is demonstrated. Several control experiments were performed to define the LSPR nanobiosensor's response to nonspecific binding as well as to demonstrate its response to the specific binding of another protein. These include the following: (1) electrostatic binding of SA to a nonbiotinylated surface, (2) nonspecific interactions of prebiotinylated SA to a biotinylated surface, (3) nonspecific interactions of bovine serum albumin to a biotinylated surface, and (4) specific binding of anti-biotin to a biotinylated surface. The LSPR nanobiosensor provides a pathway to ultrasensitive biodetection experiments with extremely simple, small, light, robust, low-cost instrumentation that will greatly facilitate field-portable environmental or point-of-service medical diagnostic applications.
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              Maximizing DNA loading on a range of gold nanoparticle sizes.

              We have investigated the variables that influence DNA coverage on gold nanoparticles. The effects of salt concentration, spacer composition, nanoparticle size, and degree of sonication have been evaluated. Maximum loading was obtained by salt aging the nanoparticles to approximately 0.7 M NaCl in the presence of DNA containing a poly(ethylene glycol) spacer. In addition, DNA loading was substantially increased by sonicating the nanoparticles during the surface loading process. Last, nanoparticles up to 250 nm in diameter were found have approximately 2 orders of magnitude higher DNA loading than smaller (13-30 nm) nanoparticles, a consequence of their larger surface area. Stable large particles are attractive for a variety of biodiagnostic assays.

                Author and article information

                J Adv Res
                J Adv Res
                Journal of Advanced Research
                09 March 2015
                January 2016
                09 March 2015
                : 7
                : 1
                : 17-28
                Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 110025, India
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author. Tel.: +91 11 26981717x3255. sikram@ 123456jmi.ac.in
                © 2015 Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Cairo University.

                This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

                : 17 October 2014
                : 25 February 2015
                : 27 February 2015

                silver nanoparticles,plant extract,green synthesis,antimicrobial


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