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      Parasitic plants of the genus Cuscuta and their interaction with susceptible and resistant host plants


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          By comparison with plant–microbe interaction, little is known about the interaction of parasitic plants with their hosts. Plants of the genus Cuscuta belong to the family of Cuscutaceae and comprise about 200 species, all of which live as stem holoparasites on other plants. Cuscuta spp. possess no roots nor fully expanded leaves and the vegetative portion appears to be a stem only. The parasite winds around plants and penetrates the host stems via haustoria, forming direct connections to the vascular bundles of their hosts to withdraw water, carbohydrates, and other solutes. Besides susceptible hosts, a few plants exist that exhibit an active resistance against infestation by Cuscuta spp. For example, cultivated tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum) fends off Cuscuta reflexa by means of a hypersensitive-type response occurring in the early penetration phase. This report on the plant–plant dialog between Cuscuta spp. and its host plants focuses on the incompatible interaction of C. reflexa with tomato.

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          Plant PRRs and the activation of innate immune signaling.

          Despite being sessile organisms constantly exposed to potential pathogens and pests, plants are surprisingly resilient to infections. Plants can detect invaders via the recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). Plant PRRs are surface-localized receptor-like kinases, which comprise a ligand-binding ectodomain and an intracellular kinase domain, or receptor-like proteins, which do not exhibit any known intracellular signaling domain. In this review, we summarize recent discoveries that shed light on the molecular mechanisms underlying ligand perception and subsequent activation of plant PRRs. Notably, plant PRRs appear as central components of multiprotein complexes at the plasma membrane that contain additional transmembrane and cytosolic kinases required for the initiation and specificity of immune signaling. PRR complexes are under tight control by protein phosphatases, E3 ligases, and other regulatory proteins, illustrating the exquisite and complex regulation of these molecular machines whose proper activation underlines a crucial layer of plant immunity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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            The evolution of parasitism in plants.

            The multiple independent origins of plant parasitism suggest that numerous ancestral plant lineages possessed the developmental flexibility to meet the requirements of a parasitic life style, including such adaptations as the ability to recognize host plants, form an invasive haustorium, and regulate the transfer of nutrients and other molecules between two different plants. In this review, we focus on the Orobanchaceae, which are unique among the parasitic plants in that extant member species include the full range of host dependence from facultative to obligate parasites. The recent emergence of genomic resources for these plants should provide new insights into parasitic plant evolution and enable the development of novel genetic strategies for controlling parasitic weeds.
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              SA, JA, ethylene, and disease resistance in plants.

              Exciting advances have been made during the past year: isolating mutants affecting plant disease resistance, cloning genes involved in the regulation of various defense responses, and characterizing novel defense signaling pathways. Recent studies have demonstrated that jasmonic acid and ethylene are important for the induction of nonspecific disease resistance through signaling pathways that are distinct from the classical systemic acquired resistance response pathway regulated by salicylic acid.

                Author and article information

                Front Plant Sci
                Front Plant Sci
                Front. Plant Sci.
                Frontiers in Plant Science
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                04 February 2015
                : 6
                : 45
                [1] 1Institute of Plant Biochemistry, Centre for Plant Molecular Biology, University of Tübingen Tübingen, Germany
                [2] 2Department of Botany II – Ecophysiology and Vegetation Ecology, Julius-von-Sachs-Institut für Biowissenschaften, Botanischer Garten der Universität Würzburg, University of Würzburg Würzburg, Germany
                Author notes

                Edited by: Benjamin Schwessinger, University of California, Davis, USA

                Reviewed by: James H. Westwood, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, USA; Moran Farhi, University of California, Davis, USA

                *Correspondence: Markus Albert, Institute of Plant Biochemistry, Centre for Plant Molecular Biology, University of Tübingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 32, 72076 Tübingen, Germany e-mail: markus.albert@ 123456zmbp.uni-tuebingen.de

                This article was submitted to Plant-Microbe Interaction, a section of the journal Frontiers in Plant Science.

                Copyright © 2015 Kaiser, Vogg, Fürst and Albert.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                : 15 September 2014
                : 16 January 2015
                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 88, Pages: 9, Words: 0
                Plant Science
                Review Article

                Plant science & Botany
                parasitic plants,plant–plant interaction,cuscuta,dodder,plant immunity,resistance,symbiosis


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