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Insulating Josephson Junction Chains as Pinned Luttinger Liquids

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      Quantum phase transition from a superfluid to a Mott insulator in a gas of ultracold atoms.

      For a system at a temperature of absolute zero, all thermal fluctuations are frozen out, while quantum fluctuations prevail. These microscopic quantum fluctuations can induce a macroscopic phase transition in the ground state of a many-body system when the relative strength of two competing energy terms is varied across a critical value. Here we observe such a quantum phase transition in a Bose-Einstein condensate with repulsive interactions, held in a three-dimensional optical lattice potential. As the potential depth of the lattice is increased, a transition is observed from a superfluid to a Mott insulator phase. In the superfluid phase, each atom is spread out over the entire lattice, with long-range phase coherence. But in the insulating phase, exact numbers of atoms are localized at individual lattice sites, with no phase coherence across the lattice; this phase is characterized by a gap in the excitation spectrum. We can induce reversible changes between the two ground states of the system.
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        Boson localization and the superfluid-insulator transition

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          Is Open Access

          Cold bosonic atoms in optical lattices

          The dynamics of an ultracold dilute gas of bosonic atoms in an optical lattice can be described by a Bose-Hubbard model where the system parameters are controlled by laser light. We study the continuous (zero temperature) quantum phase transition from the superfluid to the Mott insulator phase induced by varying the depth of the optical potential, where the Mott insulator phase corresponds to a commensurate filling of the lattice (``optical crystal''). Examples for formation of Mott structures in optical lattices with a superimposed harmonic trap, and in optical superlattices are presented.
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            Author and article information

            Journal
            PRLTAO
            Physical Review Letters
            Phys. Rev. Lett.
            American Physical Society (APS)
            0031-9007
            1079-7114
            October 2017
            October 18 2017
            : 119
            : 16
            10.1103/PhysRevLett.119.167701
            © 2017

            https://link.aps.org/licenses/aps-default-license

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