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      Persistent left superior vena cava: Review of the literature, clinical implications, and relevance of alterations in thoracic central venous anatomy as pertaining to the general principles of central venous access device placement and venography in cancer patients

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          Abstract

          Persistent left superior vena cava (PLSVC) represents the most common congenital venous anomaly of the thoracic systemic venous return, occurring in 0.3% to 0.5% of individuals in the general population, and in up to 12% of individuals with other documented congential heart abnormalities. In this regard, there is very little in the literature that specifically addresses the potential importance of the incidental finding of PLSVC to surgeons, interventional radiologists, and other physicians actively involved in central venous access device placement in cancer patients. In the current review, we have attempted to comprehensively evaluate the available literature regarding PLSVC. Additionally, we have discussed the clinical implications and relevance of such congenital aberrancies, as well as of treatment-induced or disease-induced alterations in the anatomy of the thoracic central venous system, as they pertain to the general principles of successful placement of central venous access devices in cancer patients. Specifically regarding PLSVC, it is critical to recognize its presence during attempted central venous access device placement and to fully characterize the pattern of cardiac venous return (i.e., to the right atrium or to the left atrium) in any patient suspected of PLSVC prior to initiation of use of their central venous access device.

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          Most cited references 131

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          In-silico human genomics with GeneCards

          Since 1998, the bioinformatics, systems biology, genomics and medical communities have enjoyed a synergistic relationship with the GeneCards database of human genes (http://www.genecards.org). This human gene compendium was created to help to introduce order into the increasing chaos of information flow. As a consequence of viewing details and deep links related to specific genes, users have often requested enhanced capabilities, such that, over time, GeneCards has blossomed into a suite of tools (including GeneDecks, GeneALaCart, GeneLoc, GeneNote and GeneAnnot) for a variety of analyses of both single human genes and sets thereof. In this paper, we focus on inhouse and external research activities which have been enabled, enhanced, complemented and, in some cases, motivated by GeneCards. In turn, such interactions have often inspired and propelled improvements in GeneCards. We describe here the evolution and architecture of this project, including examples of synergistic applications in diverse areas such as synthetic lethality in cancer, the annotation of genetic variations in disease, omics integration in a systems biology approach to kidney disease, and bioinformatics tools.
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            Left superior vena cava persistence in patients undergoing pacemaker or cardioverter-defibrillator implantation: a 10-year experience.

            The persistence of a left superior vena cava (LSVC) has been observed in 0.3% of the general population as established by autopsy. In the adult population, it is an important anatomic finding if a left superior approach to the heart is considered. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of a LSVC in patients undergoing pacemaker (PM) and cardioverter-defibrillator (CD) implantation. We observed the prevalence of LSVC during a 10-year period; each patient undergoing PM or transvenous CD implantation received a left cephalic/left subclavian venous approach to the heart. With this technique, LSVC persistence is easily diagnosed during lead placement. A total of 1,139 patients consecutively underwent PM implantation during 10 years: 4 patients had persistent LSCV (0.34%). Among 115 patients undergoing CD implantation, 2 patients with LSVC (1.7%) were observed. Overall LSVC persistence was found in 6 of 1,254 patients (0.47%). Two patients, one of whom had no right superior vena cava (RSVC), received a left-sided PM, whereas two other patients received right-sided devices. Both CD patients received a left-sided active-can device: the first patient with a right-sided lead tunneled to the left pectoral pocket, as a result of poor catheter handling through the LSVC and coronary sinus, and the second patient with a screw-in lead from LSVC. Long-term follow-up of these patients (average +/- SD, 41 +/- 26 months) revealed absence of lead dislodgment and appropriate device function regardless of lead implantation site. Persistence of LSVC in adults undergoing PM/CD implantation is similar to that of the general population (0.47% in our study). The left-sided implant can be achieved by stylet shaping and by use of active fixation leads in most patients, with a reliable outcome at short term in addition to appropriate device performance at follow-up. Assessment of the RSVC is advisable when planning a right-sided implantation, since a minority of patients lacks this vessel.
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              Persistent left superior vena cava: a case report and review of literature

              Persistent left superior vena cava is rare but important congenital vascular anomaly. It results when the left superior cardinal vein caudal to the innominate vein fails to regress. It is most commonly observed in isolation but can be associated with other cardiovascular abnormalities including atrial septal defect, bicuspid aortic valve, coarctation of aorta, coronary sinus ostial atresia, and cor triatriatum. The presence of PLSVC can render access to the right side of heart challenging via the left subclavian approach, which is a common site of access utilized when placing pacemakers and Swan-Ganz catheters. Incidental notation of a dilated coronary sinus on echocardiography should raise the suspicion of PLSVC. The diagnosis should be confirmed by saline contrast echocardiography.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                World J Surg Oncol
                World Journal of Surgical Oncology
                BioMed Central
                1477-7819
                2011
                28 December 2011
                : 9
                : 173
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Division of Surgical Oncology, Department of Surgery, Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital and Richard J. Solove Research Institute and Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Ohio State University Medical Center, Columbus, Ohio, 43210, USA
                [2 ]Section of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology, The Ohio State University Medical Center, Columbus, Ohio, 43210, USA
                Article
                1477-7819-9-173
                10.1186/1477-7819-9-173
                3266648
                22204758
                Copyright ©2011 Povoski and Khabiri; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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