Samuel Cota Teixeira 1 , Guilherme de Souza 1 , Bruna Cristina Borges 2 , Thádia Evelyn de Araújo 1 , Alessandra Monteiro Rosini 1 , Fábio Alves Aguila 3 , Sergio Ricardo Ambrósio 3 , Rodrigo Cassio Sola Veneziani 3 , Jairo Kenupp Bastos 4 , Marcelo José Barbosa Silva 2 , Carlos Henrique Gomes Martins 5 , Bellisa de Freitas Barbosa 1 , Eloisa Amália Vieira Ferro , 1
16 September 2020
The combination of pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine is the standard care in cases of congenital toxoplasmosis. However, therapy with these drugs is associated with severe and sometimes life-threatening side effects. The investigation of phytotherapeutic alternatives to treat parasitic diseases without acute toxicity is essential for the advancement of current therapeutic practices. The present study investigates the antiparasitic effects of oleoresins from different species of Copaifera genus against T. gondii. Oleoresins from C. reticulata, C. duckei, C. paupera, and C. pubiflora were used to treat human trophoblastic cells (BeWo cells) and human villous explants infected with T. gondii. Our results demonstrated that oleoresins were able to reduce T. gondii intracellular proliferation, adhesion, and invasion. We observed an irreversible concentration-dependent antiparasitic action in infected BeWo cells, as well as parasite cell cycle arrest in the S/M phase. The oleoresins altered the host cell environment by modulation of ROS, IL-6, and MIF production in BeWo cells. Also, Copaifera oleoresins reduced parasite replication and TNF-α release in villous explants. Anti- T. gondii effects triggered by the oleoresins are associated with immunomodulation of the host cells, as well as, direct action on parasites.