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          1. ABSTRACT

          Recently, developing sustainable architectural materials from renewable resources is gaining great interest. This interest is intended to alleviate the drawbacks of petroleum-based materials and their contribution in the escalation of CO 2 emissions causing the current environmental deterioration. Achieving sustainability through developing efficient architectural materials have been always conditioned by technological advancements and economic potential. This has affected the architectural design and construction sectors, especially in times of disasters or economic crisis, resulting in paralysis in the architectural construction and material development. These effects were caused by the capitalization and centralization of architectural construction industries.

          The recent trend of self-sufficiency that had first emerged in environmental activities supporting recycling, environmental purification and conservation, oxygen, food, and electricity production, has extended to cover more sophisticated products, such as wearables, gadgets and architecture. Achieving self-sufficiency in architecture is of interest to multidisciplinary researchers who focus on developing both self-sufficient systems and materials as the two main components of the built environment.

          Developing architectural materials aims to provide cheap, recycled, renewable, environmentally friendly, durable and sustainable building material regardless of the possibility of the autonomous production of these materials on a popular democratic basis. Architectural building materials production was always and still is considered a massive industry that is centralized in major firms and LTDs, limiting the architectural construction process to the availability of major economic capacity. This centralization had its merits in forcing forward large-scale economies and vitalizing the architectural design and construction market, but only on the large scale; however, this centralization shows its drawbacks every time in disasters or economic crisis, causing almost total paralysis in the construction industry due to economic impotence caused by different reasons. Moreover, the centralization of the building and construction industry have affected developing communities, causing economic drawbacks and creating a ripple-like crisis in housing.

          In this paper, the authors propose the self-sufficiency approach in the development and production of sustainable architectural material from abundant and renewable microbial agents, in order to democratize and popularize material production on a domestic and personalized basis.

          The current work presents Bacterial Cellulose (BC) as a structural and membrane material in different architectural elements and applications, developed through simple and domestically applied procedures in order to create distributed and self-sufficient productive units for architectural materials production.

          The current study aims specifically at the easiness and simplification of the production practices and procedures of the biopolymers, and specifically bacterial cellulose for encouraging and establishing the popularization of self-sufficient production units of these renewable and abundant biopolymers. In this regard, the current study is part of the ongoing research on enhancing the mechanical properties of bacterial cellulose in order to use it for structural applications, that will be further developed in terms of medium optimization, bacterial cellulose production efficiency analysis, and material mechanical and physical properties testing.

          The following sections will contain a literature review on the chemical base and physical/mechanical properties of biopolymers including bacterial cellulose, followed by the experimental work conducted in this paper to develop bacterial cellulose as an architectural material. The results were further analyzed through formal and structural customization proposing possible applications in architectural design.

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          This critical review provides a processing-structure-property perspective on recent advances in cellulose nanoparticles and composites produced from them. It summarizes cellulose nanoparticles in terms of particle morphology, crystal structure, and properties. Also described are the self-assembly and rheological properties of cellulose nanoparticle suspensions. The methodology of composite processing and resulting properties are fully covered, with an emphasis on neat and high fraction cellulose composites. Additionally, advances in predictive modeling from molecular dynamic simulations of crystalline cellulose to the continuum modeling of composites made with such particles are reviewed (392 references).
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              Biofilms: Microbial Life on Surfaces

              Microorganisms attach to surfaces and develop biofilms. Biofilm-associated cells can be differentiated from their suspended counterparts by generation of an extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) matrix, reduced growth rates, and the up- and down- regulation of specific genes. Attachment is a complex process regulated by diverse characteristics of the growth medium, substratum, and cell surface. An established biofilm structure comprises microbial cells and EPS, has a defined architecture, and provides an optimal environment for the exchange of genetic material between cells. Cells may also communicate via quorum sensing, which may in turn affect biofilm processes such as detachment. Biofilms have great importance for public health because of their role in certain infectious diseases and importance in a variety of device-related infections. A greater understanding of biofilm processes should lead to novel, effective control strategies for biofilm control and a resulting improvement in patient management.

                Author and article information

                Journal of Green Building
                College Publishing
                Spring 2021
                10 June 2021
                : 16
                : 2
                : 173-199
                Author notes

                1. Universitat Internacional de Catalunya, iBAG—UIC Barcelona (Institute for Biodigital Architecture & Genetics). nadine.tarekelgazzar@ 123456uic.es ; estevez@ 123456uic.es ; yomnaabdallah@ 123456uic.es

                Page count
                Pages: 27
                Self URI (journal page): http://www.journalofgreenbuilding.com
                RESEARCH ARTICLES

                Urban design & Planning,Civil engineering,Environmental management, Policy & Planning,Architecture,Environmental engineering
                bio films,bio polymers,bacterial cellulose,structural customization


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