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      Comparative efficacy on dogs of a single topical treatment with fipronil/(S)-methoprene or weekly physiological hygiene shampoos against Ctenocephalides felis in a simulated flea-infested environment Translated title: Efficacité comparée chez le chien d’un unique traitement antiparasitaire externe à base d’un spot-on de fipronil/(S)-methoprene et de shampooings physiologiques appliqués toutes les semaines vis-à-vis de l’infestation par les puces Ctenocephalides felis dans un système simulant la contamination de l’environnement

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          Abstract

          Flea infestations of pets continue to persist due to the lack of knowledge of flea biology and ecology. It is not unusual that pet owners believe regular hygiene, such as shampooing their dogs can replace regular insecticidal treatment. The objective of this study was to compare in a flea simulated environment, modelling exposure similar to that found in a home, that the use of regular physiological shampoo does not control fleas adequately when compared to a long acting topical formulation. Three groups of six dogs were formed: one untreated control group, one group treated monthly with the topical formulation of fipronil/(S)-methoprene, and a third group treated weekly with a hygiene shampoo. All dogs were infested with adult unfed Ctenocephalides felis fleas (200 ± 5) on Days -28 and -21. Each animal’s sleeping box was fitted with a plastic cup mounted to the inside roof of the box. The sleeping bench of each animal was covered with a carpet to accommodate flea development. The dogs were maintained in their kennels throughout the study. In order to maintain the environmental flea challenge, C. felis pupae (100 ± 5) were placed in the plastic cup in each animal’s sleeping box on Days -14, -7, 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42. The dogs were combed and fleas counted weekly on Days -1, 3, 10, 17, 24, 31, 38, 45, and 51. The fleas were placed immediately back on the dogs. On Day 60, fleas were counted and removed. Flea infestations in the untreated control group at each count averaged between 46.2 and 74.2 fleas throughout the study. The average number of fleas infesting dogs was significantly different (p < 0.05) between the untreated and the two treatment groups and between the two treatment groups at all counts throughout the two months study (Days 3, 10, 17, 24, 31, 38, 45, 51 and 60). The efficacy was never below 99.1% in the fipronil/(S)-methoprene group, and efficacy in the shampoo group was never above 79.2%. Weekly shampooing in treatment group 3 was intentionally delayed after Day 42, to evaluate wether missing a weekly bath would affect the flea population. The Day 48 data indicate that forgetting or delaying a single weekly shampooing resulted in a clear increase in flea numbers and a significant decrease in efficacy from 68.2% to 34.8%. The fipronil(S)/methoprene treatment allowed a continuous control as demonstrated by the high efficacy against fleas, and also the number of flea-free dogs on seven of the nine weekly assessments, in spite of what was essentially a continuous flea challenge model.

          Translated abstract

          Les infestations des carnivores domestiques par les puces restent fréquentes du fait d’une méconnaissance de la biologie et de l’écologie des puces. Il n’est pas rare que les propriétaires de chiens ou de chats soient persuadés qu’une hygiène régulière, en particulier des shampooings, remplace les traitements insecticides. L’objectif de cette étude était de comparer, dans un système de simulation d’infestation par les puces via l’environnement, que l’application hebdomadaire de shampooing physiologique ne contrôle pas les puces de façon adéquate comparée à l’application d’un topique insecticide mensuel. Trois groupes de chiens ont été formés, un non traité, un recevant une dose de la formulation topique de fipronil/(S)-méthoprène, et un troisième recevant un shampooing physiologique toutes les semaines. Tous les chiens ont été infestés par des puces Ctenocephalides felis (200 ± 5) aux jours - 28 et - 21. Chaque niche individuelle de repos était équipée à son plafond d’une boîte permettant d’y placer des cocons de puces. Le sol était couvert d’un tapis permettant aux oeufs et larves de puces d’évoluer. Les chiens ont été maintenus individuellement dans un box avec niche de repos pendant toute l’étude. Pour maintenir le niveau d’infestation, des pupes de C. felis (100 ± 5) ont été placées dans les boîtes au plafond des niches aux jours - 14, - 7, 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 et 42. Tous les chiens étaient peignés et les puces comptées aux jours - 1, 3, 10, 17, 24, 31, 38, 45 et 51. Les puces étaient replacées sur les chiens après comptage sauf au jour 60, fin de l’étude. Les chiens du groupe contrôle non traité ont été infestés en moyenne par 46,2 à 74,2 puces tout au long de l’étude. Cette quantité était significativement différente avec les deux groupes traités (p < 0,05), mais aussi entre les deux groupes traités durant tous les comptages effectués au cours des deux mois (jours 3, 10, 17, 24, 31, 38, 45, 51 et 60). L’efficacité insecticide n’est jamais descendue en dessous de 99,1 % dans le groupe fipronil/(S)-méthoprène, et l’efficacité n’a jamais été supérieure à 79,2 % dans le groupe “shampooings”. Le shampooing du jour 42 a volontairement été omis pour évaluer l’impact d’un oubli dans le schéma hebdomadaire. Les comptages du jour 48 ont indiqué clairement qu’un shampooing oublié faisait chuter l’efficacité de 68,2 % à 34,8 %. Le traitement fipronil/(S)-méthoprène a permis un contrôle continu démontré par l’efficacité anti-puces de plus de 99 % durant toute l’étude, mais aussi par le nombre significativement différent de chiens sans puce observé au cours des comptages hebdomadaires, dans un système d’infestation continue.

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          Most cited references 19

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          The biology, ecology, and management of the cat flea.

           Donna Dryden,  K Rust (1996)
          The cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis felis, is the most important ectoparasite of domestic cats and dogs worldwide. In addition to its annoyance to pets and humans, C. felis felis is responsible for flea bite allergy dermatitis and the transmission of dog tapeworm. The abiotic and biotic factors that affect the development of immature stages are reviewed with special emphasis given to those aspects directly affecting control. Factors influencing host selection and feeding by adults are summarized. Recent studies concerning mating and oviposition, especially as they impact the likelihood of survival by immatures, are discussed. There has been an increase in the number of reports of insecticide resistance in the past ten years. Greater attention has been placed on disrupting larval development in modern IPM programs. The immature stages of the cat flea are extremely susceptible to environmental factors such as temperature and relative humidity and insect growth regulators (IGRs). In recent years, the control of cat fleas has increasingly relied on the use of IGRs applied to the host or to the indoor environment. Finally, we discuss advances in pesticide chemistry that provide tools for better control of adult fleas on the host.
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            Flea and tick control in the 21st century: challenges and opportunities.

            Historically, veterinarians have told their clients that one flea is all that is necessary to produce and maintain the clinical signs of flea allergy dermatitis (FAD). Newer adulticides, such as fipronil, imidacloprid, nitenpyram and selamectin, have had a positive clinical effect on dogs and cats with FAD. However, data on flea feeding and the effect of these products on flea feeding bring into question the once perceived dogma of the single flea bite concept. Current data would indicate that the primary role of these insecticides in managing FAD is in rapidly reducing flea numbers and reducing flea feeding rather than preventing flea bites. Controlling tick infestations is important not only because ticks are nuisance parasites of dogs and cats, but also because they are vectors of a variety of bacterial and protozoal diseases. Achieving satisfactory tick control is often difficult due to unrealistic expectations of pet owners, to residual acaricidal properties of products that are often less than 100% and because of constant re-infestation pressure. Some of the most important factors veterinarians must be aware of are regional changes in tick distributions, our inability to control wildlife tick hosts and expectation differences between flea and tick control. These factors probably cause most real and perceived product failures.
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              Prevalence of flea infestation in dogs and cats in Hungary combined with a survey of owner awareness.

              A survey was conducted in order to gain current information on flea species (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) infesting dogs and cats living in urban and rural areas of Hungary, along with data on the factors that affect the presence, distribution and seasonality of infestation. In addition, owner awareness of flea infestation was evaluated. Practitioners in 13 veterinary clinics were asked to examine all dogs and cats attending the clinic and to collect fleas, when present, on 2 days in each month from December 2005 to November 2006. They also completed a questionnaire for each animal examined. A total of 319 dogs (14.1%) were found to be infested; the highest prevalence (27.1%) of infestation on dogs occurred in August and the lowest (5.4%) in May. Prevalence of fleas on cats was higher (22.9%); the highest (35.0%) and lowest (8.1%) prevalences occurred in July and April, respectively. Fleas were more prevalent in rural (387/1924 animals, 20.2%) than in urban (161/1343 animals, 12.0%) areas. Three species, Ctenocephalides felis (Bouché), Ctenocephalides canis (Curtis) and Pulex irritans L., were found. On dogs, the prevalence of C. canis alone was 53.0%, whereas that of C. felis alone was 36.0%. Only 19 specimens of P. irritans were found on 14 dogs from rural habitats only. Prevalence of C. felis only on cats was 94.3%; the remaining cats were infested with either C. canis or with mixed infestations of C. felis and C. canis. More than half (51.4%) of the owners of infested dogs and cats had not used flea control products in the past year or more, and five times as many owners in rural than urban areas had not used flea control products in the same period. Very few owners reported having attempted to kill fleas in their animals' environment; instead, they believed that fleas were acquired from other cats or dogs.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Parasite
                Parasite
                parasite
                Parasite : journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
                EDP Sciences
                1252-607X
                1776-1042
                May 2012
                15 May 2012
                : 19
                : 2 ( publisher-idID: parasite/2012/02 )
                : 153-158
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Merial 29, avenue Tony Garnier 69007 Lyon France
                [2 ] ClinVet International (Pty) Ltd., Uitsig Road, Bainsvlei Bloemfontein 9338 Republic of South Africa
                [3 ] Biomathematics, VetAgroSup, Veterinary Faculty of Lyon 1, avenue Bourgelat 69280 Marcy L’Étoile France
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: Frédéric Beugnet. E-mail: frederic.beugnet@ 123456merial.com
                Article
                parasite2012192p153 10.1051/parasite/2012192153
                10.1051/parasite/2012192153
                3671438
                22550626
                © PRINCEPS Editions, Paris, 2012

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 6, Tables: 2, Equations: 2, References: 23, Pages: 6
                Categories
                Original Contribution

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