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      Tissue-Specific Expression of Human Angiotensin II AT1 and AT2 Receptors and Cellular Localization of Subtype mRNAs in Adult Human Renal Cortex Using in situ Hybridization

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          All studies analyzing the localization of angiotensin II (Ang II) receptors in the human kidney have been performed at the protein level using <sup>125</sup>I-Ang II as a probe. In this study, cellular localizations of Ang II type l (AT1-R) and type 2 (AT2-R) receptor mRNAs in the adult human renal cortex were examined for the first time using in situ hybridization, and their expression patterns determined by RNase protection assay were compared with those in other human tissues. In the human renal cortex obtained from tumor-free portions in renal cell carcinoma, AT1-R mRNA levels were about 8- to 10-fold higher than AT2-R mRNA levels. Human liver and aorta predominantly expressed AT1-R mRNA, while human right atrium contained both AT1-R and AT2-R mRNAs. Ligand-binding assays revealed that the total Ang II receptor number in the human renal cortex was 16.0 ± 3.3 fmol/mg protein, similar to that in liver (17.7 ± 5.8) but significantly higher than in right atrium (11.6 ± 3.2) and aorta (5.6 ± 2.7). Relative distribution ratios of AT1-R and AT2-R numbers in the renal cortex and right atrium were 82/17 and 56/42%, respectively. In situ hybridization study indicated that strongest AT1-R mRNA signals were located in interlobular arteries and tubulointerstitial fibrous regions surrounding interlobular arteries and glomeruli, followed in decreasing order by glomeruli and cortical tubules. Expression of AT2-R mRNA was highly localized in interlobular arteries. Cells present in tubulointerstitial regions were positive for vimentin and collagen type 1, indicating that the majority of the cells present in the regions are fibroblasts. Presence of strong AT1-R mRNA signals in the tubulointerstitial fibrous regions surrounding arteries and glomeruli and the expression of AT2-R mRNA in the interlobular artery were the first evidence, suggesting a pharmacological framework for the differential effects of Ang II receptor subtype mediated renal function in the adult human kidney.

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          Angiotensin II Type 1a Receptor-deficient Mice with Hypotension and Hyperreninemia

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            Angiotensin receptor subtypes in rat, rabbit and monkey tissues: Relative distribution and species dependency

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              Structure of the rat V1a vasopressin receptor gene and characterization of its promoter region and complete cDNA sequence of the 3'-end.

              The gene encoding the rat V1a arginine vasopressin (AVP) receptor was isolated, and its structural organization and 5'-flanking region were characterized. In addition, the complete cDNA sequence of the major transcript of the rat V1a receptor gene was determined. Southern blots demonstrated a single copy of the V1a receptor gene in the rat genome, spanning a region of 3.8 kilobases (kb) and consisting of two exons and one intron (1.8 kb). The location of the intron was unique among G protein-coupled receptor genes in that the first exon encodes six of the seven transmembrane regions, the seventh region being encoded by the second exon. Primer extension, RNase protection, and rapid amplification of the 5'-end of the cDNA identified three transcriptional initiation sites (-405, -243, and -237), the major transcription initiation sites being mapped to positions -243 and -237 base pairs (bp) upstream of the ATG initiation codon (+1 bp). This portion of the 5'-flanking region has neither a TATA nor a CCAAT box, is GC-rich but has no GC box motif, and has features of promoters seen in housekeeping genes. Chimeras containing 2.2 kb of the 5'-flanking region and deletion analyses using the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene indicated that a "minimal" region, exhibiting promoter activity and tissue specificity, is located between nucleotides -296 and -221, when transfected into vascular smooth muscle cells. Gel mobility shift assay and Southwestern blotting suggested that approximately 30- and approximately 28-kDa nuclear proteins specifically bind to this region. Rapid amplification of the 3'-end of the cDNA showed that the major transcript terminates 442 bp downstream of the stop codon, in agreement with the mRNA size (2.1 kb). This study demonstrated a distinctive feature in the structural organization of the AVP-oxytocin receptor family genes, and characterization of the 5'-flanking region reported here will lead to a better understanding of the mechanism of transcriptional regulation of the rat V1a AVP receptor gene.

                Author and article information

                S. Karger AG
                September 1998
                04 September 1998
                : 80
                : 1
                : 25-34
                a Department of Medicine II, Division of Endocrine Hypertension and Metabolism, Kansai Medical University, Osaka, b Lead Generation Research Laboratories, Tanabe Seiyaku Co., Ltd., Osaka, c Pharmacological Laboratory, Taiho Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Tokushima, Japan
                45121 Nephron 1998;80:25–34
                © 1998 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Figures: 6, Tables: 1, References: 31, Pages: 10
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