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      Phenotypic plasticity in the scaling of avian basal metabolic rate

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      Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences

      The Royal Society

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          Inferring the historical patterns of biological evolution.

           John M. Pagel (1999)
          Phylogenetic trees describe the pattern of descent amongst a group of species. With the rapid accumulation of DNA sequence data, more and more phylogenies are being constructed based upon sequence comparisons. The combination of these phylogenies with powerful new statistical approaches for the analysis of biological evolution is challenging widely held beliefs about the history and evolution of life on Earth.
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            Phylogenetic analysis and comparative data: a test and review of evidence.

            The question is often raised whether it is statistically necessary to control for phylogenetic associations in comparative studies. To investigate this question, we explore the use of a measure of phylogenetic correlation, lambda, introduced by Pagel (1999), that normally varies between 0 (phylogenetic independence) and 1 (species' traits covary in direct proportion to their shared evolutionary history). Simulations show lambda to be a statistically powerful index for measuring whether data exhibit phylogenetic dependence or not and whether it has low rates of Type I error. Moreover, lambda is robust to incomplete phylogenetic information, which demonstrates that even partial information on phylogeny will improve the accuracy of phylogenetic analyses. To assess whether traits generally show phylogenetic associations, we present a quantitative review of 26 published phylogenetic comparative data sets. The data sets include 103 traits and were chosen from the ecological literature in which debate about the need for phylogenetic correction has been most acute. Eighty-eight percent of data sets contained at least one character that displayed significant phylogenetic dependence, and 60% of characters overall (pooled across studies) showed significant evidence of phylogenetic association. In 16% of tests, phylogenetic correlation could be neither supported nor rejected. However, most of these equivocal results were found in small phylogenies and probably reflect a lack of power. We suggest that the parameter lambda be routinely estimated when analyzing comparative data, since it can also be used simultaneously to adjust the phylogenetic correction in a manner that is optimal for the data set, and we present an example of how this may be done.
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              A general model for the origin of allometric scaling laws in biology.

              Allometric scaling relations, including the 3/4 power law for metabolic rates, are characteristic of all organisms and are here derived from a general model that describes how essential materials are transported through space-filling fractal networks of branching tubes. The model assumes that the energy dissipated is minimized and that the terminal tubes do not vary with body size. It provides a complete analysis of scaling relations for mammalian circulatory systems that are in agreement with data. More generally, the model predicts structural and functional properties of vertebrate cardiovascular and respiratory systems, plant vascular systems, insect tracheal tubes, and other distribution networks.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
                Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
                The Royal Society
                0962-8452
                1471-2954
                April 22 2006
                April 22 2006
                : 273
                : 1589
                : 931-937
                10.1098/rspb.2005.3415
                © 2006

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