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      Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa Inhibitor-Associated Thrombocytopenia: Clinical Predictors and Effect on Outcome

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          Abstract

          Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors are used as an adjunct to antiplatelet therapy in percutaneous coronary intervention to reduce postprocedural enzyme elevations. Previous studies have shown a risk for thrombocytopenia that is associated with these agents. We sought to evaluate the incidence and outcomes of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor-associated thrombocytopenia in an unselected series of patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. We reviewed 984 interventions performed on 908 subjects over a specific time period. Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors were used in 58.8% of cases. Their use increased from 38 to 82% during the study period (p < 0.0001). The incidence of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor-associated thrombocytopenia was 5.4%. The occurrence of thrombocytopenia was not associated with higher age, gender or ethnicity. The preprocedural platelet count was not associated with induced thrombocytopenia (237 ± 76 vs. 209 ± 68 × 10<sup>3</sup>, p > 0.05). The occurrence of thrombocytopenia was not associated with increased in-hospital mortality, 1-year mortality, myocardial infarction or revascularization, but was associated with a hospital stay twice as long as in those patients without thrombocytopenia (5.6 ± 11.3 vs. 2.1 ± 2.2 days, p < 0.001). Of the 5.4% of patients who developed thrombocytopenia, only 2 patients (7.1%) required platelet or blood cell transfusion.

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          Most cited references 4

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          Use of a monoclonal antibody directed against the platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor in high-risk coronary angioplasty. The EPIC Investigation.

           RM Califf (1994)
          Platelets are believed to play a part in the ischemic complications of coronary angioplasty, such as abrupt closure of the coronary vessel during or soon after the procedure. Accordingly, we evaluated the effect of a chimeric monoclonal-antibody Fab fragment (c7E3 Fab) directed against the platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor, in patients undergoing angioplasty who were at high risk for ischemic complications. This receptor is the final common pathway for platelet aggregation. In a prospective, randomized, double-blind trial, 2099 patients treated at 56 centers received a bolus and an infusion of placebo, a bolus of c7E3 Fab and an infusion of placebo, or a bolus and an infusion of c7E3 Fab. They were scheduled to undergo coronary angioplasty or atherectomy in high-risk clinical situations involving severe unstable angina, evolving acute myocardial infarction, or high-risk coronary morphologic characteristics. The primary study end point consisted of any of the following: death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, unplanned surgical revascularization, unplanned repeat percutaneous procedure, unplanned implantation of a coronary stent, or insertion of an intraaortic balloon pump for refractory ischemia. The numbers of end-point events were tabulated for 30 days after randomization. As compared with placebo, the c7E3 Fab bolus and infusion resulted in a 35 percent reduction in the rate of the primary end point (12.8 vs. 8.3 percent, P = 0.008), whereas a 10 percent reduction was observed with the c7E3 Fab bolus alone (12.8 vs. 11.5 percent, P = 0.43). The reduction in the number of events with the c7E3 Fab bolus and infusion was consistent across the end points of unplanned revascularization procedures and nonfatal myocardial infarction. Bleeding episodes and transfusions were more frequent in the group given the c7E3 Fab bolus and infusion than in the other two groups. Ischemic complications of coronary angioplasty and atherectomy were reduced with a monoclonal antibody directed against the platelet IIb/IIIa glycoprotein receptor, although the risk of bleeding was increased.
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            Platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor blockade and low-dose heparin during percutaneous coronary revascularization.

              (1997)
            Blockade of the platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor with abciximab (a monoclonal-antibody Fab fragment directed against the receptor) has been shown to diminish ischemic complications among patients undergoing high-risk coronary angioplasty or directional atherectomy but increases bleeding complications. The widespread applicability of this treatment is unknown, particularly in view of the observed risk of hemorrhage. In a prospective, double-blind trial, we randomly assigned patients undergoing urgent or elective percutaneous coronary revascularization at 69 centers to receive abciximab with standard-dose, weight-adjusted heparin (initial bolus of 100 U per kilogram of body weight); abciximab with low-dose, weight-adjusted heparin (initial bolus of 70 U per kilogram); or placebo with standard-dose, weight-adjusted heparin. The primary efficacy end point was death from any cause, myocardial infarction, or urgent revascularization within 30 days of randomization. The trial was terminated at the first interim analysis, with 2792 of the planned 4800 patients enrolled. At 30 days, the composite event rate was 11.7 percent in the group assigned to placebo with standard-dose heparin; 5.2 percent in the group assigned to abciximab with low-dose heparin (hazard ratio, 0.43; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.30 to 0.60; P<0.001); and 5.4 percent in the group assigned to abciximab with standard-dose heparin (hazard ratio, 0.45; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.32 to 0.63; P<0.001). There were no significant differences among the groups in the risk of major bleeding, although minor bleeding was more frequent among patients receiving abciximab with standard-dose heparin. Inhibition of the platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor with abciximab, together with low-dose, weight-adjusted heparin, markedly reduces the risk of acute ischemic complications in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary revascularization, without increasing the risk of hemorrhage.
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              Randomised trial of coronary intervention with antibody against platelet IIb/IIIa iritegrin for reduction of clinical restenosis: results at six months

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CRD
                Cardiology
                10.1159/issn.0008-6312
                Cardiology
                S. Karger AG
                0008-6312
                1421-9751
                2004
                October 2004
                15 October 2004
                : 102
                : 4
                : 184-187
                Affiliations
                Cardiology Service, Brooke Army Medical Center, San Antonio, Tex., USA
                Article
                81008 Cardiology 2004;102:184–187
                10.1159/000081008
                15452390
                © 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Tables: 2, References: 10, Pages: 4
                Categories
                General Cardiology

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