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      The Multifunctionality of Exosomes; from the Garbage Bin of the Cell to a Next Generation Gene and Cellular Therapy

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          Abstract

          Exosomes are packaged with a variety of cellular cargo including RNA, DNA, lipids and proteins. For several decades now there has been ongoing debate as to what extent exosomes are the garbage bin of the cell or if these entities function as a distributer of cellular cargo which acts in a meaningful mechanistic way on target cells. Are the contents of exosomes unwanted excess cellular produce or are they selective nucleic acid packaged nanoparticles used to communicate in a paracrine fashion? Overexpressed RNAs and fragments of DNA have been shown to collect into exosomes which are jettisoned from cells in response to particular stimuli to maintain homeostasis suggesting exosomes are functional trash bins of the cell. Other studies however have deciphered selective packaging of particular nucleic acids into exosomes. Nucleic acids packaged into exosomes are increasingly reported to exert transcriptional control on recipient cells, supporting the notion that exosomes may provide a role in signaling and intracellular communication. We survey the literature and conclude that exosomes are multifunctional entities, with a plethora of roles that can each be taken advantage to functionally modulate cells. We also note that the potential utility of developing exosomes as a next generation genetic therapy may in future transform cellular therapies. We also depict three models of methodologies which can be adopted by researchers intending to package nucleic acid in exosomes for developing gene and cell therapy.

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          Most cited references117

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          Minimal information for studies of extracellular vesicles 2018 (MISEV2018): a position statement of the International Society for Extracellular Vesicles and update of the MISEV2014 guidelines

          ABSTRACT The last decade has seen a sharp increase in the number of scientific publications describing physiological and pathological functions of extracellular vesicles (EVs), a collective term covering various subtypes of cell-released, membranous structures, called exosomes, microvesicles, microparticles, ectosomes, oncosomes, apoptotic bodies, and many other names. However, specific issues arise when working with these entities, whose size and amount often make them difficult to obtain as relatively pure preparations, and to characterize properly. The International Society for Extracellular Vesicles (ISEV) proposed Minimal Information for Studies of Extracellular Vesicles (“MISEV”) guidelines for the field in 2014. We now update these “MISEV2014” guidelines based on evolution of the collective knowledge in the last four years. An important point to consider is that ascribing a specific function to EVs in general, or to subtypes of EVs, requires reporting of specific information beyond mere description of function in a crude, potentially contaminated, and heterogeneous preparation. For example, claims that exosomes are endowed with exquisite and specific activities remain difficult to support experimentally, given our still limited knowledge of their specific molecular machineries of biogenesis and release, as compared with other biophysically similar EVs. The MISEV2018 guidelines include tables and outlines of suggested protocols and steps to follow to document specific EV-associated functional activities. Finally, a checklist is provided with summaries of key points.
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            Exosome-mediated transfer of mRNAs and microRNAs is a novel mechanism of genetic exchange between cells.

            Exosomes are vesicles of endocytic origin released by many cells. These vesicles can mediate communication between cells, facilitating processes such as antigen presentation. Here, we show that exosomes from a mouse and a human mast cell line (MC/9 and HMC-1, respectively), as well as primary bone marrow-derived mouse mast cells, contain RNA. Microarray assessments revealed the presence of mRNA from approximately 1300 genes, many of which are not present in the cytoplasm of the donor cell. In vitro translation proved that the exosome mRNAs were functional. Quality control RNA analysis of total RNA derived from exosomes also revealed presence of small RNAs, including microRNAs. The RNA from mast cell exosomes is transferable to other mouse and human mast cells. After transfer of mouse exosomal RNA to human mast cells, new mouse proteins were found in the recipient cells, indicating that transferred exosomal mRNA can be translated after entering another cell. In summary, we show that exosomes contain both mRNA and microRNA, which can be delivered to another cell, and can be functional in this new location. We propose that this RNA is called "exosomal shuttle RNA" (esRNA).
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              Circular RNA is enriched and stable in exosomes: a promising biomarker for cancer diagnosis.

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Academic Editor
                Role: Academic Editor
                Role: Academic Editor
                Role: Academic Editor
                Journal
                Genes (Basel)
                Genes (Basel)
                genes
                Genes
                MDPI
                2073-4425
                27 January 2021
                February 2021
                : 12
                : 2
                : 173
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Center for Gene Therapy, City of Hope-Beckman Research Institute, Duarte, CA 91010, USA; sshrivastava@ 123456coh.org
                [2 ]Hematological Malignancy and Stem Cell Transplantation Institute at the City of Hope, Duarte, CA 91010, USA
                [3 ]School of Medical Science, Gold Coast Campus, Griffith University, Southport 4222, Australia
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: kmorris@ 123456coh.org
                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0021-2751
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0157-0553
                Article
                genes-12-00173
                10.3390/genes12020173
                7912150
                33513776
                22a44b3c-f9d3-4ff3-a411-7432d527ee1b
                © 2021 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                History
                : 26 December 2020
                : 24 January 2021
                Categories
                Review

                exosome,therapeutics,nucleic acid payloads,nanoparticle
                exosome, therapeutics, nucleic acid payloads, nanoparticle

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