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      Complexity Analysis of EEG, MEG, and fMRI in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer’s Disease: A Review


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          Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a degenerative brain disease with a high and irreversible incidence. In recent years, because brain signals have complex nonlinear dynamics, there has been growing interest in studying complex changes in the time series of brain signals in patients with AD. We reviewed studies of complexity analyses of single-channel time series from electroencephalogram (EEG), magnetoencephalogram (MEG), and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in AD and determined future research directions. A systematic literature search for 2000–2019 was performed in the Web of Science and PubMed databases, resulting in 126 identified studies. Compared to healthy individuals, the signals from AD patients have less complexity and more predictable oscillations, which are found mainly in the left parietal, occipital, right frontal, and temporal regions. This complexity is considered a potential biomarker for accurately responding to the functional lesion in AD. The current review helps to reveal the patterns of dysfunction in the brains of patients with AD and to investigate whether signal complexity can be used as a biomarker to accurately respond to the functional lesion in AD. We proposed further studies in the signal complexities of AD patients, including investigating the reliability of complexity algorithms and the spatial patterns of signal complexity. In conclusion, the current review helps to better understand the complexity of abnormalities in the AD brain and provide useful information for AD diagnosis.

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          The PRISMA statement for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analyses of studies that evaluate healthcare interventions: explanation and elaboration

          Systematic reviews and meta-analyses are essential to summarise evidence relating to efficacy and safety of healthcare interventions accurately and reliably. The clarity and transparency of these reports, however, are not optimal. Poor reporting of systematic reviews diminishes their value to clinicians, policy makers, and other users. Since the development of the QUOROM (quality of reporting of meta-analysis) statement—a reporting guideline published in 1999—there have been several conceptual, methodological, and practical advances regarding the conduct and reporting of systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Also, reviews of published systematic reviews have found that key information about these studies is often poorly reported. Realising these issues, an international group that included experienced authors and methodologists developed PRISMA (preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses) as an evolution of the original QUOROM guideline for systematic reviews and meta-analyses of evaluations of health care interventions. The PRISMA statement consists of a 27-item checklist and a four-phase flow diagram. The checklist includes items deemed essential for transparent reporting of a systematic review. In this explanation and elaboration document, we explain the meaning and rationale for each checklist item. For each item, we include an example of good reporting and, where possible, references to relevant empirical studies and methodological literature. The PRISMA statement, this document, and the associated website (www.prisma-statement.org/) should be helpful resources to improve reporting of systematic reviews and meta-analyses.
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            A Mathematical Theory of Communication

            C. Shannon (1948)
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              Possible generalization of Boltzmann-Gibbs statistics


                Author and article information

                Entropy (Basel)
                Entropy (Basel)
                20 February 2020
                February 2020
                : 22
                : 2
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: xiangjie@ 123456tyut.edu.cn ; Tel.: +86-18603511178

                These authors contributed equally to this work.

                © 2020 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).


                alzheimer’s disease,complexity,brain signals,single-channel analysis,biomarker


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