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      IABP: history-evolution-pathophysiology-indications: what we need to know

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          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Treatment with the intraaortic balloon pump (IABP) is the most common form of mechanical support for the failing heart. Augmentation of diastolic pressure during balloon inflation contributes to the coronary circulation and the presystolic deflation of the balloon reduces the resistance to systolic output. Consequently, the myocardial work is reduced. The overall effect of the IABP therapy is an increase in the myocardial oxygen supply/demand ratio and thus in endocardial viability.

          This is an overall synopsis of what we need to know regarding IABP. Furthermore, this review article attempts to systematically delineate the pathophysiology linked with the hemodynamic consequences of IABP therapy. The authors also look at the future of the use of the balloon pump and conclude that the positive multi-systemic hemodynamic regulation during IABP treatment should further justify its use.

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          Most cited references 100

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          Pulmonary vascular and right ventricular dysfunction in adult critical care: current and emerging options for management: a systematic literature review

          Introduction Pulmonary vascular dysfunction, pulmonary hypertension (PH), and resulting right ventricular (RV) failure occur in many critical illnesses and may be associated with a worse prognosis. PH and RV failure may be difficult to manage: principles include maintenance of appropriate RV preload, augmentation of RV function, and reduction of RV afterload by lowering pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR). We therefore provide a detailed update on the management of PH and RV failure in adult critical care. Methods A systematic review was performed, based on a search of the literature from 1980 to 2010, by using prespecified search terms. Relevant studies were subjected to analysis based on the GRADE method. Results Clinical studies of intensive care management of pulmonary vascular dysfunction were identified, describing volume therapy, vasopressors, sympathetic inotropes, inodilators, levosimendan, pulmonary vasodilators, and mechanical devices. The following GRADE recommendations (evidence level) are made in patients with pulmonary vascular dysfunction: 1) A weak recommendation (very-low-quality evidence) is made that close monitoring of the RV is advised as volume loading may worsen RV performance; 2) A weak recommendation (low-quality evidence) is made that low-dose norepinephrine is an effective pressor in these patients; and that 3) low-dose vasopressin may be useful to manage patients with resistant vasodilatory shock. 4) A weak recommendation (low-moderate quality evidence) is made that low-dose dobutamine improves RV function in pulmonary vascular dysfunction. 5) A strong recommendation (moderate-quality evidence) is made that phosphodiesterase type III inhibitors reduce PVR and improve RV function, although hypotension is frequent. 6) A weak recommendation (low-quality evidence) is made that levosimendan may be useful for short-term improvements in RV performance. 7) A strong recommendation (moderate-quality evidence) is made that pulmonary vasodilators reduce PVR and improve RV function, notably in pulmonary vascular dysfunction after cardiac surgery, and that the side-effect profile is reduced by using inhaled rather than systemic agents. 8) A weak recommendation (very-low-quality evidence) is made that mechanical therapies may be useful rescue therapies in some settings of pulmonary vascular dysfunction awaiting definitive therapy. Conclusions This systematic review highlights that although some recommendations can be made to guide the critical care management of pulmonary vascular and right ventricular dysfunction, within the limitations of this review and the GRADE methodology, the quality of the evidence base is generally low, and further high-quality research is needed.
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            Acute heart failure and cardiogenic shock: a multidisciplinary practical guidance.

            Acute heart failure (AHF) causes high burden of mortality, morbidity, and repeated hospitalizations worldwide. This guidance paper describes the tailored treatment approaches of different clinical scenarios of AHF and CS, focusing on the needs of professionals working in intensive care settings.
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              Intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation in US and non-US centres: results of the Benchmark Registry.

               C. D. Reddy,  ,  Jeff Miller (2003)
              To examine differences in patient characteristics and outcomes in 19636 patients enrolled in the USA and 3027 patients enrolled in other countries undergoing intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) counterpulsation. Indications for IABP use; a larger percentage of US patients were identified as 'early support and stabilization for angiography or angioplasty' (21.1% US vs 11.8% non-US), and 'pre-operative support for high-risk CABG' (15.9% vs 6.6%). A smaller percentage of US patients vs non-US patients were identified as 'weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass' (14.3% vs 28.2%), and 'refractory ventricular failure' (6.2% vs 9.8%). One out of five patients in both groups was listed as 'cardiogenic shock' (18.9% US vs 20.2% non-US). All cause, risk-adjusted, in-hospital mortality (20.1% vs 28.7%; P<0.001), and mortality with IABP in place (10.8% vs 18.0%; P<0.001) were lower at US vs non-US sites. In both US and non-US institutions, IABP associated complication rates, such as IABP-related mortality (0.05% vs 0.07%), major limb ischaemia (0.9% vs 0.8%), and severe bleeding (0.9% vs 0.8%), were low. IABP counterpulsation is deployed at an earlier clinical stage in US patients. Mortality rates are higher for non-US patients, particularly for patients with non-surgery cardiac interventions, even after adjusting for risk factors. Complication rates were low. Physicians should therefore not be reluctant to use IABP in high-risk patients undergoing cardiac procedures.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                hparissis@yahoo.co.uk
                vgraham87@gmail.com
                savvaslampridis@gmail.com
                mlau01@qub.ac.uk
                ghooks01@qub.ac.uk
                pmhandu@icloud.com
                Journal
                J Cardiothorac Surg
                J Cardiothorac Surg
                Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery
                BioMed Central (London )
                1749-8090
                4 August 2016
                4 August 2016
                2016
                : 11
                Affiliations
                Cardiothoracics Department, Royal Victoria Hospital, Belfast, Northern Ireland
                Article
                513
                10.1186/s13019-016-0513-0
                4972967
                27487772
                © The Author(s). 2016

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                Categories
                Review
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2016

                Surgery

                intra-aortic balloon pump, mechanical circulatory support, internal counterpulsation

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