Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is known as an important mediator in the pathogenesis of glomerular injury. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of the specific PAF antagonists CV-6209 and CV-3988 on accelerated nephrotoxic serum nephritis (NTN) in the rat. The amount of urinary protein excretion was significantly less in the rats treated with CV-6209 or CV-3988 on the 5th and 7th day of treatment than in the nontreated controls. The results of light- and immunofluorescence-microscopic examination did not demonstrate any favorable effect on glomerular changes by these PAF antagonists. However, CV-6209 protected against the loss of glomerular anionic charges in rats with NTN. Thus, it is suggested that PAF is a potent mediator of protein excretion, and that the loss of glomerular anionic charges is an important mechanism for the mediation of PAF in glomerulonephritis.