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      Parenting style during childhood is associated with the development of chronic pain and a patient's need for psychosomatic treatment in adulthood : A case-control study

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      , MD, PhD a , b , c , , MD, PhD b , c , , MD, PhD a , , MD, PhD a , , MD, PhD a , , MD, PhD a , , MD, PhD d , , MD, PhD e , , MD, PhD a , f , , MD, PhD a , f ,
      Medicine
      Wolters Kluwer Health
      attachment, care, chronic pain, overprotection, parenting

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          Abstract

          Supplemental Digital Content is available in the text

          Abstract

          The aim of this study is to investigate the relation between parenting style and chronic pain and the patients’ need for psychosomatic treatment in adulthood.

          We compared 4 combinations of 2 parenting style subscales, high and low care and overprotection, among the following 4 age- and sex-matched groups: community-dwelling subjects without chronic pain (n = 100), community-dwelling subjects with chronic pain (n = 100), outpatients with chronic pain (n = 50), and inpatients with chronic pain (n = 50). Parenting style was assessed for both the mother and father by use of the Parental Bonding Instrument questionnaire. The parenting style associated with the worst outcome was defined as both low care and high overprotection, as reported in previous studies.

          The frequency of reported adverse parenting style was significantly higher among chronic pain patients than community-dwelling subjects without chronic pain (all P < .05). The odds ratios for an adverse parenting style significantly increased through the categories after adjusting for demographic factors and the pain visual analog scale ( P for trend <.01).

          These findings suggest that parental low care and high overprotection during childhood contribute to the future risk of chronic pain and the patients’ need for psychosomatic treatment in adulthood.

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          Most cited references35

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          Pain and emotion: a biopsychosocial review of recent research.

          Research on emotion and pain has burgeoned. We review the last decade's literature, focusing on links between emotional processes and persistent pain. Neurobiological research documents the neural processes that distinguish affective from sensory pain dimensions, link emotion and pain, and generate central nervous system pain sensitization. Psychological research demonstrates that greater pain is related to emotional stress and limited emotional awareness, expression, and processing. Social research shows the potential importance of emotional communication, empathy, attachment, and rejection. Emotions are integral to the conceptualization, assessment, and treatment of persistent pain. Research should clarify when to eliminate or attenuate negative emotions, and when to access, experience, and express them. Theory and practice should integrate emotion into cognitive-behavioral models of persistent pain. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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            Prognostic factors for musculoskeletal pain in primary care: a systematic review.

            Estimating the future course of musculoskeletal pain is an important consideration in the primary care consultation for patients and healthcare professionals. Studies of prognostic indicators tend to have been viewed in relation to each site separately, however, an alternative view is that some prognostic indicators may be common across different sites of musculoskeletal pain. To identify generic prognostic indicators for patients with musculoskeletal pain in primary care. Systematic review. Observational cohort studies in primary care. MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO and CINAHL electronic databases were searched from inception to April 2006. Inclusion criteria were that the study was a primary care-based cohort, published in English and contained information on prognostic indicators for musculoskeletal conditions. Forty-five studies were included. Eleven factors, assessed at baseline, were found to be associated with poor outcome at follow up for at least two different regional pain complaints: higher pain severity at baseline, longer pain duration, multiple-site pain, previous pain episodes, anxiety and/or depression, higher somatic perceptions and/or distress, adverse coping strategies, low social support, older age, higher baseline disability, and greater movement restriction. Despite substantial heterogeneity in the design and analysis of original studies, this review has identified potential generic prognostic indicators that may be useful when assessing any regional musculoskeletal pain complaint. However, Its unclear whether these indicators, used alone, or in combination, can correctly estimate the likely course of individual patients' problems. Further research is needed, particularly in peripheral joint pain and using assessment methods feasible for routine practice.
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              The efficacy and safety of once-daily quetiapine extended release in patients with schizophrenia switched from other antipsychotics: an open-label study in Chinese population

              Background Non-adherence to antipsychotic medication in schizophrenic patients is common and associated with symptom relapse and poorer long-term outcomes. The risk factors for treatment non-adherence include dosing frequency and complexity. Besides, slower dose titration in an acute schizophrenic episode may lead to attenuated efficacy. Therefore, the convenient dosage regimen and rapid initiation scheme of quetiapine extended release (XR) were expected to provide better effectiveness and promote adherence in patients with schizophrenia. This study was implemented to assess the efficacy and safety of once-daily quetiapine XR in schizophrenic patients with switched from other antipsychotics which were suboptimal due to insufficient efficacy or tolerability. Methods This was a 12-week, open-label study conducted in the Chinese population in Taiwan. Patients who had a score of 4 (moderate) or greater on any of the 7 items of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) Positive Symptom Subscale and needed to switch from previous antipsychotics were recruited. Quetiapine XR was administered at 300 mg on day 1, 600 mg on day 2 and up to 800 mg after day 2. From day 8 until the end of the study, the dose of quetiapine XR was adjusted within 400-800 mg per day, depending on the clinical response and tolerance of the patients. The variable of the primary outcome was the change from baseline to Week 12 in PANSS total and subscale scores. Secondary outcome was the baseline-to-endpoint difference in the Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S) scores of the participants. Results Sixty-one patients were recruited and 55.7% of them completed the study. The mean changes in the PANSS total score and CGI-S score showed significant improvement (−18.4, p < .001 and −1.0, p < .001, respectively). Four patients (6.7%) experienced adverse events including headache, exacerbation of psychosis and dysuria. The use of concomitant anticholinergics decreased from 15.0% to 8.3%. Conclusions The results of our investigation implicated that quetiapine XR was an effective and well tolerated alternative for Chinese schizophrenic patients with previous suboptimal treatment. Future large-scale studies are warranted to validate our results. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov ID NCT02142556. Registered 15 May 2014.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Medicine (Baltimore)
                Medicine (Baltimore)
                MEDI
                Medicine
                Wolters Kluwer Health
                0025-7974
                1536-5964
                17 July 2020
                17 July 2020
                : 99
                : 29
                : e21230
                Affiliations
                [a ]Department of Psychosomatic Medicine, Kyushu University Hospital
                [b ]Department of Epidemiology and Public Health
                [c ]Center for Cohort Studies, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University
                [d ]Kyushu University
                [e ]Hisayama Research Institute for Lifestyle Diseases
                [f ]Department of Psychosomatic Medicine, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.
                Author notes
                []Correspondence: Masako Hosoi, Department of Psychosomatic Medicine, Kyushu University Hospital, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashiku, Fukuoka 812-8582, Japan (e-mail: hosoi.masako.642@ 123456m.kyushu-u.ac.jp ).
                Author information
                http://orcid.org/0000-0001-8880-5847
                Article
                MD-D-20-01974 21230
                10.1097/MD.0000000000021230
                7373500
                32702896
                24a3dc46-3fdf-4d45-9ac0-bdf3ad32bddc
                Copyright © 2020 the Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc.

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License 4.0 (CCBY-NC), where it is permissible to download, share, remix, transform, and buildup the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be used commercially without permission from the journal. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0

                History
                : 4 March 2020
                : 14 May 2020
                : 10 June 2020
                Funding
                Funded by: Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare
                Award ID: H23-Pain–Ippan-001
                Award Recipient : Masako Hosoi
                Funded by: Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development
                Award ID: Research Project on Elucidation of Chronic Pain grant
                Award Recipient : Masako Hosoi
                Funded by: Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology
                Award ID: 21590766
                Award Recipient : Masako Hosoi
                Funded by: Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology
                Award ID: 26460911
                Award Recipient : Masako Hosoi
                Funded by: Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology
                Award ID: 25460903
                Award Recipient : Hiroshi Kawata
                Funded by: Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology
                Award ID: 19178196
                Award Recipient : Masako Hosoi
                Funded by: Japan Society for the Promotion of Science
                Award ID: JP19K07890
                Award Recipient : Mao Shibata
                Funded by: Japan Society for the Promotion of Science
                Award ID: JP19H03752
                Award Recipient : Masako Hosoi
                Funded by: Japan Society for the Promotion of Science
                Award ID: JP17K09304
                Award Recipient : Kozo Anno
                Categories
                3300
                Research Article
                Observational Study
                Custom metadata
                TRUE

                attachment,care,chronic pain,overprotection,parenting
                attachment, care, chronic pain, overprotection, parenting

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