The effects of sevelamer hydrochloride (Renagel<sup>®</sup>; hereafter referred to as sevelamer), a noncalcemic phosphate binder, on renal mineral handling were examined in rats. Normal rats were fed a diet containing 0.3, 1, 3, and 5% sevelamer for 8 days, and serum, urine, and the immunohistochemical localization of the type II Na/Pi cotransporter protein in the kidney were analyzed. Rats treated with 3 or 5% sevelamer showed significant decreases in serum phosphorus (P) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels, with no changes in serum calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), or 1,25(OH)<sub>2</sub>D<sub>3</sub> levels. Increases were observed in urinary excretions of Ca and Mg associated with a reduction in the PTH level in rats treated with 3 or 5% sevelamer. Rats treated with 1% or higher concentrations of sevelamer showed significant dose-dependent and marked reductions of the urinary P excretion, and the tubular reabsorption of P was maximized to almost 100% in the 5% sevelamer group. The hypophosphaturia in rats treated with 3 or 5% sevelamer was accounted for by the reductions in serum PTH and P per se, and immunohistochemical analysis showed that the expression of type II Na/Pi cotransporter protein was markedly increased at the brush border membranes of the deep and superficial nephrons in rats treated with 5% sevelamer as compared with rats given a normal diet. In conclusion, sevelamer rapidly lowered serum P and PTH levels in normal rats. Sevelamer treatment also produced a marked hypophosphaturia associated with translocation of type II Na/Pi cotransporter protein and increased urinary Ca and Mg excretions by the reduction of PTH.