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      Symmetric Dimethylarginine as a Secondary Prevention Biomarker of Chronic Kidney Disease

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      Nephron

      S. Karger AG

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          Symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) as endogenous marker of renal function--a meta-analysis.

          Dosing of most drugs must be adapted in renal insufficiency, making accurate assessment of renal function essential in clinical medicine. Furthermore, even modest impairment of renal function has been recognized as a cardiovascular risk factor. The purpose of this analysis was to identify the role of symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA), the structural isomer of the cardiovascular risk marker asymmetric dimethylarginine, as an endogenous marker of renal function. Comprehensive searches of Medline and the Cochrane Library from 1970 to February 2006 were performed to identify studies that evaluated the correlation between SDMA and renal function. The search was augmented by scanning references of identified articles and reviews. The correlation coefficients (R) were recorded from each study for the values of 1/SDMA and clearance estimates and for SDMA and creatinine levels. The summary correlation coefficients with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were pooled using the random-effects method. In 18 studies involving 2136 patients systemic SDMA concentrations correlated highly with inulin clearance [R = 0.85 (CI 0.76-0.91, P < 0.0001)], as well as with various clearance estimates combined [R = 0.77 (CI 0.65-0.85, P < 0.0001)] and serum creatinine [R = 0.75 (CI 0.46-089, P < 0.0001)]. SDMA exhibits some properties of a reliable marker of renal function. Future studies have to clarify whether SDMA is indeed suited to improve diagnosis and eventually optimize care of patients.
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            Serum Concentrations of Symmetric Dimethylarginine and Creatinine in Dogs with Naturally Occurring Chronic Kidney Disease

            Background Serum concentrations of symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) detected chronic kidney disease (CKD) in cats an average of 17.0 months before serum creatinine (Cr) concentrations increased above the reference interval. Objectives To report on the utility of measuring serum SDMA concentrations in dogs for detection of CKD before diagnosis by measurement of serum Cr. Animals CKD dogs (n = 19) included those persistently azotemic for ≥3 months (n = 5), dogs that were azotemic at the time of death (n = 4), and nonazotemic dogs (n = 10). CKD dogs were compared with healthy control dogs (n = 20). Methods Retrospective study, whereby serum Cr concentrations were determined by enzymatic colorimetry and serum SDMA concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography‐mass spectrometry in dogs with necropsy confirmed CKD. Results Serum SDMA increased before serum Cr in 17 of 19 dogs (mean, 9.8 months; range, 2.2–27.0 months). Duration of elevations in serum SDMA concentrations before the dog developed azotemia (N = 1) or before the dog died (N = 1) was not determined. Serum SDMA and Cr concentrations were linearly related (r = 0.84; P < .001). Serum SDMA (r = −0.80) and serum Cr (r = −0.89) concentrations were significantly related to glomerular filtration rate (both P < .001). Conclusion and Clinical Importance Using serum SDMA as a biomarker for CKD allows earlier detection of kidney dysfunction in dogs than does measurement of serum Cr. Earlier detection might be desirable for initiating renoprotective interventions that slow progression of kidney disease.
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              Guanidino compounds in serum and urine of nondialyzed patients with chronic renal insufficiency.

              Levels of 15 guanidino compounds and urea were determined in serum and urine of nondialyzed patients with chronic renal insufficiency subdivided according to etiology and creatinine clearances. No significantly different guanidino compound levels in serum and urine were found for the interstitial nephritis, glomerulonephritis, nephrangiosclerosis, and diabetic nephropathy subgroups. Subdividing the patients according to creatinine clearance yields the following results: (1) Serum guanidinosuccinic acid (GSA) and methylguanidine levels of patients with end-stage renal failure (creatinine clearance < 10 mL/min) are up to 100 and 35 times higher than control levels, while guanidine, creatinine, and symmetrical dimethylarginine (SDMA) are increased about 10 times. Serum levels of asymmetrical dimethylarginine (ADMA) are only doubled in end-stage renal failure. Serum levels of guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) and homoarginine are significantly decreased. (2) Urinary excretion levels of most guanidino compounds decrease with decreasing creatinine clearance except for GSA and methylguanidine. (3) Greater than 90% of patients with creatinine clearance ranging from subnormal to 40 mL/min have serum SDMA levels higher than the upper-normal limit; up to 80% have increased GSA levels. (4) The clearance rates of some of the guanidino compounds could be calculated: with the exception of arginine, they decrease with decreasing creatinine clearance. This study shows specific abnormal guanidino compound levels in serum and urine of nondialyzed patients with chronic renal insufficiency that can be used as complementary diagnostic parameters. The best correlation between serum guanidino compound levels and the degree of renal insufficiency is found for GSA, SDMA, methylguanidine, and guanidine. Urinary excretion levels of ADMA correlate best with decreasing creatinine clearance. Serum levels of GSA and especially SDMA are candidate indicators for the onset of renal failure.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEF
                Nephron
                10.1159/issn.1660-8151
                Nephron
                S. Karger AG
                1660-8151
                2235-3186
                2020
                June 2020
                12 May 2020
                : 144
                : 6
                : 310-312
                Affiliations
                FSPE Applied Bioenergetics Lab, University of Novi Sad, Novi Sad, Serbia
                Author notes
                *Prof. Sergej M. Ostojic, FSPE Applied Bioenergetics Lab, University of Novi Sad, Lovcenska 16, Novi Sad 21000 (Serbia), sergej.ostojic@chess.edu.rs
                Article
                507862 Nephron 2020;144:310–311
                10.1159/000507862
                32396896
                © 2020 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Pages: 2
                Categories
                Clinical Practice: Letter to the Editor

                Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

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