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      Effect Of Peppermint Essence On The Pain And Anxiety Caused By Intravenous Catheterization In Cardiac Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial

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          The effects of the peppermint essence on the pain and anxiety caused by intravenous catheterization have not been studied yet. The aim of this study was to determine effect of inhaling peppermint essence on the pain and anxiety.


          In this study, 80 cardiac patients were selected through convenient sampling and randomly allocated to aromatherapy and control groups. Data gathering tools were numeric pain rating scale and visual analogue scale for anxiety. The aromatherapy and control groups received inhaled aromatherapy with peppermint essence and distilled water, respectively.


          Mean severity of the pain in the aromatherapy and control groups was 2.95±0.98 and 3.42±1.33, respectively. The difference was statistically significant ( p=0.048). The mean score of anxiety before the intervention in the aromatherapy and control groups was 3.75±1.08 and 4.70±1.43, respectively; these figures after the intervention were 2.32±0.97 and 2.10±1.42, respectively. The two groups were not significantly different before and after the intervention in terms of the level of anxiety. However, the level of anxiety before and after the intervention was significantly different in each group ( p<0.001).


          Aromatherapy attenuated the pain and anxiety caused by intravenous catheterization. Before catheterization, peppermint essence aromatherapy is recommended.

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          Most cited references 37

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          Systematic review of endometriosis pain assessment: how to choose a scale?

          Numerous studies concerning endometriosis and pain have been reported. However, there is no consensus on the best method to evaluate pain in endometriosis and many scales have been used. Moreover, there are only a few descriptions of minimal clinically important differences after treatment (MCID) to evaluate variations in pain. In our study, we aim to identify pain scales used in endometriosis pain treatment, to address their strong and weak points and to define which would be the ideal scale to help clinicians and researchers to evaluate endometriosis-related pain.
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            Assessment of state anxiety is frequently required in clinical and research settings, but its measurement using standard multi-item inventories entails practical challenges. Such inventories are increasingly complemented by paper-and-pencil, single-item visual analog scales measuring state anxiety (VAS-A), which allow rapid assessment of current anxiety states. Computerized versions of VAS-A offer additional advantages, including facilitated and accurate data collection and analysis, and applicability to computer-based protocols. Here, we establish the psychometric properties of a computerized VAS-A.
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              Predicting peripheral venous access difficulty in the emergency department using body mass index and a clinical evaluation of venous accessibility.

              Peripheral venous (PV) cannulation, one of the most common technical procedures in Emergency Medicine, may prove challenging, even to experienced Emergency Department (ED) staff. Morbid obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 40) has been reported as a risk factor for PV access failure in the operating room.

                Author and article information

                J Pain Res
                J Pain Res
                Journal of Pain Research
                21 October 2019
                : 12
                : 2933-2939
                [1 ]Students Research Committee, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences , Kermanshah, Iran
                [2 ]Social Development and Health Promotion Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences , Kermanshah, Iran
                [3 ]Clinical Research Development Center, Imam Reza Hospital, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences , Kermanshah, Iran
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Alireza Khatony Nursing Department, School of Nursing and Midwifery , Doolat Abaad, Kermanshah, IranTel/fax +98 83 3827 9394 Email Akhatony@gmail.com
                © 2019 Akbari et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 3, References: 39, Pages: 7
                Original Research

                Anesthesiology & Pain management

                peppermint, pain, intravenous catheterization, aromatherapy, anxiety


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