Background: To clarify the effects of post-treatment with direct hemoperfusion using a CTR column on the mortality and inflammatory responses to endotoxin-induced shock in rats. Methods: Thirty-six male rats were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups (n = 12/group): the endotoxemic group, receiving intravenous Escherichia coli endotoxin (15 mg/kg over 2 min); the control column group, treated without CTR for 120 min at 2 h after endotoxin injection, and CTR-post-treatment group, treated with CTR for 120 min at 2 h after endotoxin injection. Hemodynamics, arterial blood gases, and mortality were recorded for the 8-hour observation period, and plasma cytokine concentrations were measured every 4 h. Results: The mortality rates were 83, 83 and 33% for the endotoxemic, control column, and CTR post-treatment groups, respectively. The increases in IL-6 concentrations were less for the CTR post-treatment group than the other 2 groups. Conclusion: The present study shows that CTR post-treatment inhibited hypotension and elevations in IL-6 concentrations, reducing the mortality rate of rats with endotoxin-induced shock.