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      Effects of Post-Treatment with Direct Hemoperfusion Using a CTR Column on Mortality and Inflammatory Responses to Endotoxin-Induced Shock in Rats

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          Abstract

          Background: To clarify the effects of post-treatment with direct hemoperfusion using a CTR column on the mortality and inflammatory responses to endotoxin-induced shock in rats. Methods: Thirty-six male rats were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups (n = 12/group): the endotoxemic group, receiving intravenous Escherichia coli endotoxin (15 mg/kg over 2 min); the control column group, treated without CTR for 120 min at 2 h after endotoxin injection, and CTR-post-treatment group, treated with CTR for 120 min at 2 h after endotoxin injection. Hemodynamics, arterial blood gases, and mortality were recorded for the 8-hour observation period, and plasma cytokine concentrations were measured every 4 h. Results: The mortality rates were 83, 83 and 33% for the endotoxemic, control column, and CTR post-treatment groups, respectively. The increases in IL-6 concentrations were less for the CTR post-treatment group than the other 2 groups. Conclusion: The present study shows that CTR post-treatment inhibited hypotension and elevations in IL-6 concentrations, reducing the mortality rate of rats with endotoxin-induced shock.

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          Most cited references 8

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          Endotoxin and tumor necrosis factor challenges in dogs simulate the cardiovascular profile of human septic shock

          Survivors of both human and animal bacterial shock develop a characteristic pattern of progressive changes in cardiovascular function over a period of 7-10 d. In this present study, we examined whether endotoxin (a product of Gram-negative bacteria) or TNF (a cytokine released from macrophages) could reproduce the same complex cardiovascular changes observed in septic shock over a period of 7-10 d. To test this hypothesis, we implanted a thrombin-fibrin clot containing purified endotoxin from E. coli into the peritoneal cavity of eight dogs, and infused TNF into eight different dogs. Over the next 10 d, serial simultaneous heart scans and thermodilution cardiac outputs were performed in these awake nonsedated animals. By day 2 after challenge with either endotoxin or TNF, animals developed a decrease (p less than 0.05) in both mean arterial pressure and left ventricular ejection fraction. With fluid resuscitation, animals manifested left ventricular dilatation (increased [p less than 0.05] end diastolic volume index), increased or normal cardiac index, and decreased or normal systemic vascular resistance index. In surviving animals, these changes returned to normal with 7-10 d. The time course of these changes was concordant (p less than 0.05) with that previously described in a canine model of septic shock using viable bacteria. During the 10-d study, control animals receiving sterile clots or heat- inactivated TNF had not significant changes in hemodynamics. The results from this canine model demonstrate that either endotoxin or TNF alone can produce many of the same hemodynamic abnormalities seen in human septic shock and in a canine septic shock model induced by live bacteria. These findings support the hypothesis that the action of endogenous mediators (TNF) responding to bacterial products (endotoxin) is the common pathway that produces the serial cardiovascular changes found in septic shock.
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            Tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-1 serum levels during severe sepsis in humans.

            In a study of serum levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF alpha) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) in patients developing sepsis in the ICU, high TNF alpha levels were found in patients with septic shock. Normal values are 75 +/- 15 pg/ml; in these patients, TNF alpha serum level ranged from 100 to 5000 pg/ml with a mean of 701 +/- 339 pg/ml and a median of 250 pg/ml. There was a correlation between TNF alpha level and sepsis severity score as well as with mortality. In contrast, IL-1 beta serum levels were only slightly increased and were not correlated with severity or mortality.
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              Plasma tumor necrosis factor and mortality in critically ill septic patients.

              Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) cachectin has been implicated as an important host mediator responsible for shock and multiple organ failure (MOF) observed during sepsis. Using a sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we measured plasma TNF levels in 43 septic patients suffering from a broad range of diseases. Measurements were taken on the day that sepsis was diagnosed. Eleven patients had detectable TNF plasma levels ranging from 10 to 100 pg/ml (TNF-positive group); in 32 patients circulating TNF could not be detected (TNF-negative group). The groups did not differ significantly as to age, underlying disease, percentage positive bacteremia and bacteriologic profile, sepsis score, and extent of MOF. Eight (73%) of 11 TNF-positive patients died from sepsis during ICU stay, vs. 11 (34%) of 32 TNF-negative patients (p less than .05). This study demonstrates that sepsis is accompanied by detectable circulating TNF in 25% of the cases, and for these patients mortality is twice that for comparable TNF-negative patients.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                BPU
                Blood Purif
                10.1159/issn.0253-5068
                Blood Purification
                S. Karger AG
                0253-5068
                1421-9735
                2006
                December 2006
                21 December 2006
                : 24
                : 5-6
                : 460-464
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Emergency and Critical Care Medicine, and bDepartment of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Japan
                Article
                95554 Blood Purif 2006;24:460–464
                10.1159/000095554
                16953106
                © 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 1, References: 10, Pages: 5
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/95554
                Categories
                Original Paper

                Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

                Hemoperfusion, Endotoxin, Cytokine, Sepsis

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