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      CTFS-ForestGEO: a worldwide network monitoring forests in an era of global change

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      Global Change Biology
      Wiley

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          Abstract

          Global change is impacting forests worldwide, threatening biodiversity and ecosystem services including climate regulation. Understanding how forests respond is critical to forest conservation and climate protection. This review describes an international network of 59 long-term forest dynamics research sites (CTFS-ForestGEO) useful for characterizing forest responses to global change. Within very large plots (median size 25 ha), all stems ≥ 1 cm diameter are identified to species, mapped, and regularly recensused according to standardized protocols. CTFS-ForestGEO spans 25 °S-61 °N latitude, is generally representative of the range of bioclimatic, edaphic, and topographic conditions experienced by forests worldwide, and is the only forest monitoring network that applies a standardized protocol to each of the world's major forest biomes. Supplementary standardized measurements at subsets of the sites provide additional information on plants, animals, and ecosystem and environmental variables. CTFS-ForestGEO sites are experiencing multifaceted anthropogenic global change pressures including warming (average 0.61 °C), changes in precipitation (up to ± 30% change), atmospheric deposition of nitrogen and sulfur compounds (up to 3.8 g N m(-2) yr(-1) and 3.1 g S m(-2) yr(-1)), and forest fragmentation in the surrounding landscape (up to 88% reduced tree cover within 5 km). The broad suite of measurements made at CTFS-ForestGEO sites makes it possible to investigate the complex ways in which global change is impacting forest dynamics. Ongoing research across the CTFS-ForestGEO network is yielding insights into how and why the forests are changing, and continued monitoring will provide vital contributions to understanding worldwide forest diversity and dynamics in an era of global change.

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          Very high resolution interpolated climate surfaces for global land areas

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            High-resolution global maps of 21st-century forest cover change.

            Quantification of global forest change has been lacking despite the recognized importance of forest ecosystem services. In this study, Earth observation satellite data were used to map global forest loss (2.3 million square kilometers) and gain (0.8 million square kilometers) from 2000 to 2012 at a spatial resolution of 30 meters. The tropics were the only climate domain to exhibit a trend, with forest loss increasing by 2101 square kilometers per year. Brazil's well-documented reduction in deforestation was offset by increasing forest loss in Indonesia, Malaysia, Paraguay, Bolivia, Zambia, Angola, and elsewhere. Intensive forestry practiced within subtropical forests resulted in the highest rates of forest change globally. Boreal forest loss due largely to fire and forestry was second to that in the tropics in absolute and proportional terms. These results depict a globally consistent and locally relevant record of forest change.
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              Global consequences of land use.

              Land use has generally been considered a local environmental issue, but it is becoming a force of global importance. Worldwide changes to forests, farmlands, waterways, and air are being driven by the need to provide food, fiber, water, and shelter to more than six billion people. Global croplands, pastures, plantations, and urban areas have expanded in recent decades, accompanied by large increases in energy, water, and fertilizer consumption, along with considerable losses of biodiversity. Such changes in land use have enabled humans to appropriate an increasing share of the planet's resources, but they also potentially undermine the capacity of ecosystems to sustain food production, maintain freshwater and forest resources, regulate climate and air quality, and ameliorate infectious diseases. We face the challenge of managing trade-offs between immediate human needs and maintaining the capacity of the biosphere to provide goods and services in the long term.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Global Change Biology
                Glob Change Biol
                Wiley
                13541013
                February 2015
                February 2015
                September 25 2014
                : 21
                : 2
                : 528-549
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Center for Tropical Forest Science-Forest Global Earth Observatory; Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute; Panama Republic of Panama
                [2 ]Conservation Ecology Center; Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute; National Zoological Park; Front Royal VA USA
                [3 ]Department of Botany; National Museum of Natural History; Washington DC USA
                [4 ]Environmental and Life Sciences; Faculty of Science; Universiti of Brunei Darussalam; Tungku Link Road Bandar Seri Begawan BE 1410 Brunei Darussalam
                [5 ]Stanford Woods Institute for the Environment; Stanford University; Stanford CA USA
                [6 ]Department of Geography; University of Alabama; Tuscaloosa AL USA
                [7 ]Center for Conservation Education and Sustainability; Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute; National Zoological Park; Washington DC USA
                [8 ]Department of Biology; Wilfrid Laurier University; Waterloo ON N2L 3C5 Canada
                [9 ]Department of Biology; Mahidol University; Bangkok Thailand
                [10 ]Research Office; Department of National Parks; Wildlife and Plant Conservation; Bangkok Thailand
                [11 ]School of Biological Sciences; University of Aberdeen; Aberdeen UK
                [12 ]School of Biological Sciences; University of Queensland; St. Lucia 4072 Australia
                [13 ]Environmental Change Institute; School of Geography and the Environment; University of Oxford; Oxford UK
                [14 ]Key Laboratory of Tropical Forest Ecology; Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden; Chinese Academy of Sciences; 88 Xuefu Road Kunming 650223 China
                [15 ]Instituto Amazónico de Investigaciones Científicas Sinchi; Bogotá Colombia
                [16 ]Department of Botany and Plant Physiology; University of Buea; Buea Cameroon
                [17 ]Department of Biology; Indiana University; Bloomington IN USA
                [18 ]Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry; USDA Forest Service; Hilo HI USA
                [19 ]Centre for Ecological Sciences; Indian Institute of Science; Bangalore India
                [20 ]Institute of Botany; Chinese Academy of Sciences; Beijing 100093 China
                [21 ]Departamento de Ciencias Forestales; Universidad Nacional de Colombia; Medellin Colombia
                [22 ]Centre de Formation et de Recherche en Conservation Forestière (CEFRECOF) Epulu; Ituri Forest; Reserve de Faune a Okapis; Epulu Democratic Republic of Congo
                [23 ]Kadoorie Farm and Botanic Garden; Tai Po Hong Kong
                [24 ]Forest Research Institute Malaysia; Selangor Malaysia
                [25 ]Botany Department; The Field Museum; Chicago IL USA
                [26 ]Environmental Studies Department; University of California, Santa Cruz; Santa Cruz CA USA
                [27 ]Faculty of Science; Department of Botany; University of Peradeniya; Peradeniya Sri Lanka
                [28 ]State Key Laboratory of Forest and Soil Ecology; Institute of Applied Ecology; Chinese Academy of Sciences; Shenyang 110164 China
                [29 ]Eastern Forest Environmental Threat Assessment Center; USDA-Forest Service Station Headquarters; Asheville NC USA
                [30 ]Tshuapa-Lomami-Lualaba Project; Lukuru Wildlife Research Foundation; Kinshasa BP 2012 Democratic Republic of the Congo
                [31 ]Kadoorie Institute and School of Biological Sciences; The University of Hong Kong; Pokfulam Hong Kong
                [32 ]Department of Renewable Resources; University of Alberta; Edmonton AB Canada
                [33 ]Computational Earth Sciences Group; Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Oak Ridge TN USA
                [34 ]Department of Natural and Applied Sciences; University of Wisconsin-Green Bay; Green Bay WI 54311 USA
                [35 ]Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology; University of California, Los Angeles; Los Angeles CA USA
                [36 ]College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources; University of Hawaii at Manoa; Honolulu HI USA
                [37 ]Resource Ecology Group; Wageningen University; Wageningen The Netherlands
                [38 ]Wuhan Botanical Garden; Chinese Academy of Sciences; Wuhan 430074 China
                [39 ]Graduate School of Agriculture; Kyoto University; Kyoto Japan
                [40 ]National Museums of Kenya; P.O. Box 40658 -00100 Nairobi Kenya
                [41 ]Land Resource Management & Agricultural Technology Department; University of Nairobi; P.O. Box 29053-00625 Nairobi Kenya
                [42 ]Mpala Research Centre; PO Box 555 Nanyuki 10400 Kenya
                [43 ]Global Conservation Programs; Wildlife Conservation Society; 2300 Southern Blvd. Bronx NY 10460 USA
                [44 ]Department of Forest Ecology; Silva Tarouca Research Institute; Brno Czech Republic
                [45 ]Department of Forest Management; College of Forestry and Conservation; The University of Montana; Missoula MT USA
                [46 ]Research Institute of Tropical Forestry; Chinese Academy of Forestry; Guangzhou China
                [47 ]Guangxi Institute of Botany; Chinese Academy of Sciences; Guilin Guangxi China
                [48 ]Research Institute of Forest Ecology; Environment and Protection; Chinese Academy of Forestry; Beijing China
                [49 ]Natural Sciences & Science Education Academic Group; National Institute of Education; Nanyang Technological University; Singapore
                [50 ]Wildland Resources Department; Utah State University; Logan UT USA
                [51 ]Wildlife Conservation Society; Brazzaville Democratic Republic of the Congo
                [52 ]Environmental and Life Sciences; Faculty of Science; Universiti of Brunei Darussalam; Tungku Link Road BE 1410 Bandar Seri Begawan Brunei Darussalam
                [53 ]Forest Ecology Group; Smithsonian Environmental Research Center; Edgewater MD USA
                [54 ]Institut de Recherche en Ecologie Tropicale/Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique et Technologique; Libreville GABON
                [55 ]Natural England; Sheffield England UK
                [56 ]Department of Biology; Washington University in St. Louis; St. Louis MO USA
                [57 ]New Guinea Binatang Research Centre; PO Box 604 Madang Papua New Guinea
                [58 ]Biology Centre; Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic and Faculty of Science; University of South Bohemia; Branisovska 31 Ceske Budejovice 370 05 Czech Republic
                [59 ]Departamento Ecologia; Universidade de São Paulo; Instituto de Biociências; Cidade Universitária; São Paulo SP Brazil
                [60 ]Institute of Biology; University of the Philippines Diliman; Quezon City Philippines
                [61 ]Harvard Forest; Harvard University; Petersham MA USA
                [62 ]Department of Biology; University of Hawaii; Hilo HI USA
                [63 ]Forest Ecology and Forest Management Group; Wageningen University; Wageningen The Netherlands
                [64 ]Tropical Plant Exploration Group (TroPEG); P.O. Box 18 Mundemba Southwest Region Cameroon
                [65 ]Faculty of Architecture and Environmental Design; Maejo University; Chiang Mai Province Thailand
                [66 ]Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Studies; National Dong Hwa University; Hualian Taiwan
                [67 ]Sarawak Forest Department; Kuching Sarawak Malaysia
                [68 ]Faculty of Forestry; University of Toronto; 33 Willcocks St. Toronto ON M5S 3B3 Canada
                [69 ]School of Biological Sciences; Washington State University; Vancouver WA USA
                [70 ]Centre for Ecology & Hydrology; Bush Estate; Penicuik Midlothian EH26 0QB UK
                [71 ]Institute for Tropical Ecosystem Studies; Department of Environmental Science; University of Puerto Rico; Rio Piedras Campus; PO Box 70357 San Juan 00936-8377 Puerto Rico
                [72 ]Department of Ecology, Evolution & Environmental Biology; Columbia University; New York NY USA
                [73 ]Department of Biological Sciences; Pontifical Catholic University of Ecuador; Apartado Postal 17-01-2184 Quito Ecuador
                [74 ]Calle 37; Instituto Alexander von Humboldt; Number 8-40 Mezzanine Bogotá Colombia
                [75 ]Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia; Manaus Brazil
                [76 ]School of ecological and environmental sciences; East China Normal University; Shanghai China
                [77 ]Department of Plant Biology; University of Minnesota; St. Paul MN USA
                [78 ]Departments of Biology & Natural & Applied Sciences; Lab Sciences 435; UW-Green Bay; Green Bay WI 54311 USA
                Article
                10.1111/gcb.12712
                25258024
                27880b4d-1ddc-45eb-8f92-e9e050cfd9e8
                © 2014

                http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/tdm_license_1.1

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