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      A new long-necked 'sauropod-mimic' stegosaur and the evolution of the plated dinosaurs.

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          Abstract

          Stegosaurian dinosaurs have a quadrupedal stance, short forelimbs, short necks, and are generally considered to be low browsers. A new stegosaur, Miragaia longicollum gen. et sp. nov., from the Late Jurassic of Portugal, has a neck comprising at least 17 cervical vertebrae. This is eight additional cervical vertebrae when compared with the ancestral condition seen in basal ornithischians such as Scutellosaurus. Miragaia has a higher cervical count than most of the iconically long-necked sauropod dinosaurs. Long neck length has been achieved by 'cervicalization' of anterior dorsal vertebrae and probable lengthening of centra. All these anatomical features are evolutionarily convergent with those exhibited in the necks of sauropod dinosaurs. Miragaia longicollum is based upon a partial articulated skeleton, and includes the only known cranial remains from any European stegosaur. A well-resolved phylogeny supports a new clade that unites Miragaia and Dacentrurus as the sister group to Stegosaurus; this new topology challenges the common view of Dacentrurus as a basal stegosaur.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          Proc. Biol. Sci.
          Proceedings. Biological sciences
          The Royal Society
          0962-8452
          0962-8452
          May 22 2009
          : 276
          : 1663
          Affiliations
          [1 ] Department of Earth Sciences (CICEGE-FCT), Universidade Nova da Lisboa, 2829-516 Monte de Caparica, Portugal. omateus@fct.unl.pt
          Article
          rspb.2008.1909
          10.1098/rspb.2008.1909
          2674496
          19324778

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