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      A Low-Calorie Unrestricted Protein Diet Attenuates Kidney Damage in Uninephrectomized Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats


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          Background/Aims: Uninephrectomized, spontaneously hypertensive rats (UNX-SHR) develop glomerular hyperfiltration, hyperfusion, and interstitial infiltrate of the remnant kidney. Consequently, UNX-SHR is a useful animal model to investigate mechanisms involved in the progression of hypertensive renal disease. Methods: Body weight; tail systolic blood pressure (SBP); urine excretion of protein, urea, and electrolytes; and serum biochemistry were determined in UNX-SHR at 2 months of age prior to uninephrectomy (week 0), prior to treatment (week 8) with a low-calorie (LC) or control diet, and one month after diet treatment (week 12). The LC diet was modified to allow equal intake of protein, sodium phosphorus, and other nutrients in both groups. Results: UNX-SHR treated with the LC diet had significantly lower body weights and SBP at the end of the experiment than did the controls (p < 0.0001). Changes in serum biochemistry and 24-hour urinary excretion of protein, sodium, potassium, and urea nitrogen in both groups were not statistically significant. The final glomerular filtration rate and renal plasma flow were similar in both groups, but the LC diet significantly reduced the glomerular damage index (0.0007), mesangial expansion index (p < 0.002), volume of interstitium per cortex (p < 0.0003), tubular interstitium volume fraction (p < 0.0008), glomerular volume (p < 0.02), and remnant kidney weight (p < 0.01). Conclusion: We demonstrated that in UNX-SHR, the prevention of renal damage by LC diet may involve diminished glomerular growth and interstitial infiltrate without changes in renal hemodynamics. Consequently, LC diet, regardless of protein ingestion, may be an important tool in the prevention of renal damage in hypertension. Additional studies of obese-hypertensive rats may confirm the beneficial effect of a LC diet and weight reduction on the renal damage of obesity-hypertension.

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          Differential effects of dietary caloric and protein restriction in the aging rat.

          Numerous studies have shown caloric restriction retards the physiological decline and increases the life span of animals. However, in these studies protein consumption was also reduced; thus, whether the beneficial effects were due to caloric or to protein restriction is unclear. To examine independently the effects of caloric and protein restriction on growth, renal function, and survival, caloric restricted male rats were fed 18, 30 or 42 percent casein diets that provided two-thirds of the quantity of diet consumed by groups fed 12, 20, or 28 percent casein diets ad libitum, respectively. Hence, caloric restricted groups consumed the same amount of protein as their paired ad libitum fed groups but one-third fewer calories. The results showed that caloric restriction decreased mature body weight, increased the rate of attaining mature body weight, retarded the age-associated decline in renal function, and increased survival. Protein restriction had no effect on mature body weight, decreased maturation rate, improved renal function, and decreased survival. Thus, protein restriction did not contribute to the survival-promoting effects of caloric restriction in rats.

            Author and article information

            Am J Nephrol
            American Journal of Nephrology
            S. Karger AG
            June 1999
            18 June 1999
            : 19
            : 3
            : 433-440
            Louisiana State University, Departments of aMedicine and bPathology, New Orleans, La., and University of Minnesota, cDepartment of Medicine, Minneapolis, Minn., USA
            13491 Am J Nephrol 1999;19:433–440
            © 1999 S. Karger AG, Basel

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            Page count
            Figures: 6, Tables: 3, References: 28, Pages: 8
            Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/13491
            Self URI (text/html): https://www.karger.com/Article/FullText/13491
            Self URI (journal page): https://www.karger.com/SubjectArea/Nephrology
            Laboratory Investigation

            Cardiovascular Medicine,Nephrology
            Low-calorie diet,Renal damage,Spontaneously hypertensive rats


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