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      The controlled synthesis of g-C 3N 4/Cd-doped ZnO nanocomposites as potential photocatalysts for the disinfection and degradation of organic pollutants under visible light irradiation

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      RSC Advances
      The Royal Society of Chemistry

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          Abstract

          The in situ growth of well-dispersed Cd-doped ZnO nanoparticles (Cd-ZnO NPs) on graphitic carbon nitride (g-C 3N 4) nanosheets was successfully achieved through the co-precipitation method for the formation of Cd-doped ZnO nanocomposites with g-C 3N 4 (Cd-ZnO/g-C 3N 4 NCs). The effect of different compositions of ternary nanocomposites (Cd-ZnO/g-C 3N 4 NCs) on photocatalytic properties was investigated. Ternary NCs, in which 60% g-C 3N 4 hybridized with 7% Cd-doped ZnO (g-C 3N 4/Cd-ZnO) NCs were proven to be optimum visible-light-driven (VLD) photocatalysts for the degradation of methylene blue (MB) dye. The enhanced photodegradation of MB is mainly due to the increase in the generation of photogenerated charge carriers (reactive oxygen species (ROS), O 2−, and ˙OH radicals). The electron spin resonance (ESR) experiment revealed that the superoxide and hydroxyl radicals were the leading species responsible for the degradation of MB. Moreover, the NC exhibited tremendous stability with a consistently high MB degradation rate for 10 successive catalytic cycles. The structural and optical properties of CdO, ZnO NPs, Cd-ZnO NPs, g-C 3N 4 NSs, and g-C 3N 4/Cd-ZnO NCs were investigated via XRD, SEM, EDX, TEM, FTIR spectroscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy, ESR spectroscopy, and PL spectroscopy techniques. The synthesized photocatalysts were also applied against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains to evaluate their antibacterial activities.

          Abstract

          The controlled design of novel Z-scheme g-C 3N 4/Cd-ZnO heterojunction via chemical co-precipitation technique. 60% g-C 3N 4 hybridized with 7% Cd-doped ZnO (g-C 3N 4/Cd-ZnO) NCs have been proved to be optimum visible-light-driven (VLD) photocatalysts.

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          A metal-free polymeric photocatalyst for hydrogen production from water under visible light.

          The production of hydrogen from water using a catalyst and solar energy is an ideal future energy source, independent of fossil reserves. For an economical use of water and solar energy, catalysts that are sufficiently efficient, stable, inexpensive and capable of harvesting light are required. Here, we show that an abundant material, polymeric carbon nitride, can produce hydrogen from water under visible-light irradiation in the presence of a sacrificial donor. Contrary to other conducting polymer semiconductors, carbon nitride is chemically and thermally stable and does not rely on complicated device manufacturing. The results represent an important first step towards photosynthesis in general where artificial conjugated polymer semiconductors can be used as energy transducers.
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            Review on Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles: Antibacterial Activity and Toxicity Mechanism

            Antibacterial activity of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) has received significant interest worldwide particularly by the implementation of nanotechnology to synthesize particles in the nanometer region. Many microorganisms exist in the range from hundreds of nanometers to tens of micrometers. ZnO-NPs exhibit attractive antibacterial properties due to increased specific surface area as the reduced particle size leading to enhanced particle surface reactivity. ZnO is a bio-safe material that possesses photo-oxidizing and photocatalysis impacts on chemical and biological species. This review covered ZnO-NPs antibacterial activity including testing methods, impact of UV illumination, ZnO particle properties (size, concentration, morphology, and defects), particle surface modification, and minimum inhibitory concentration. Particular emphasize was given to bactericidal and bacteriostatic mechanisms with focus on generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) including hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), OH− (hydroxyl radicals), and O2 −2 (peroxide). ROS has been a major factor for several mechanisms including cell wall damage due to ZnO-localized interaction, enhanced membrane permeability, internalization of NPs due to loss of proton motive force and uptake of toxic dissolved zinc ions. These have led to mitochondria weakness, intracellular outflow, and release in gene expression of oxidative stress which caused eventual cell growth inhibition and cell death. In some cases, enhanced antibacterial activity can be attributed to surface defects on ZnO abrasive surface texture. One functional application of the ZnO antibacterial bioactivity was discussed in food packaging industry where ZnO-NPs are used as an antibacterial agent toward foodborne diseases. Proper incorporation of ZnO-NPs into packaging materials can cause interaction with foodborne pathogens, thereby releasing NPs onto food surface where they come in contact with bad bacteria and cause the bacterial death and/or inhibition.
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              Photodegradation performance of g-C3N4 fabricated by directly heating melamine.

              The g-C(3)N(4) photocatalyst was synthesized by directly heating the low-cost melamine. The methyl orange dye (MO) was selected as a photodegrading goal to evaluate the photocatalytic activity of as-prepared g-C(3)N(4). The comparison experiments indicate that the photocatalytic activity of g-C(3)N(4) can be largely improved by the Ag loading. The strong acid radical ion (SO(4)(2-) or NO(3)(-)) can promote the degrading rate of MO for g-C(3)N(4) photocatalysis system. The MO degradation over the g-C(3)N(4) is mainly attributed to the photoreduction process induced by the photogenerated electrons. Our results clearly indicate that the metal-free g-C(3)N(4) has good performance in photodegradation of organic pollutant.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                RSC Adv
                RSC Adv
                RA
                RSCACL
                RSC Advances
                The Royal Society of Chemistry
                2046-2069
                7 January 2021
                6 January 2021
                7 January 2021
                : 11
                : 4
                : 2025-2039
                Affiliations
                [a] Department of Chemistry, School of Science, University of Management and Technology Lahore 54770 Pakistan mohsin.javed@ 123456umt.edu.pk
                [b] Department of Chemistry, School of Natural Sciences (SNS), National University of Science and Technology (NUST) H-12 Islamabad 46000 Pakistan shahidiqbal.chem@ 123456sns.nust.edu.pk
                [c] Department of Transdisciplinary Studies, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul National University Seoul 08826 South Korea alibahadur138@ 123456snu.ac.kr
                [d] Department of Chemistry, Division of Science and Technology, University of Education Lahore Pakistan Lahore Pakistan
                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1348-2534
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4607-6217
                Article
                d0ra08573a
                10.1039/d0ra08573a
                8693747
                35424172
                28ae2575-921c-475e-becf-d62a8a5ff975
                This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry
                History
                : 8 October 2020
                : 1 December 2020
                Page count
                Pages: 15
                Funding
                Funded by: National Research Foundation, doi 10.13039/501100001321;
                Award ID: NRF-2019H1D3A1A01102931
                Categories
                Chemistry
                Custom metadata
                Paginated Article

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