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      Sequence analysis of the bovine coronavirus nucleocapsid and matrix protein genes

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      Virology
      Published by Elsevier Inc.

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          Abstract

          The 3′ end of the 20-kb genome of the Mebus strain of bovine enteric coronavirus (BCV) was copied into cDNA and cloned into the PstI site of the pUC9 vector. Four clones from the 3′ end of the genome were sequenced either completely or in part to determine the sequence of the first 2451 bases. Within this sequence were identified, in order, a 3′-noncoding region of 291 bases, the gene for a 448-amino acid nucleocapsid protein (N) having a molecular weight of 49,379, and the gene for a 230-amino acid matrix protein (M) having a molecular weight of 26,376. A third large open reading frame is contained entirely within the N gene sequence but is positioned in a different reading frame; it potentially encodes a polypeptide of 207 amino acids having a molecular weight of 23,057. A higher degree of amino acid sequence homology was found between the M proteins of BCV and MHV (87%) than between the N proteins (70%). For the M proteins of BCV and MHV, notable differences were found at the amino terminus, the most probable site of O-glycosylation, where the sequence is N-Met-Ser-Ser-Val-Thr-Thr for BCV and N-Met-Ser-Ser-Thr-Thr for MHV. BCV apparently uses two of its six potential O-glycosylation sites.

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          Most cited references32

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          High-frequency RNA recombination of murine coronaviruses.

          The RNA genome of coronaviruses consists of a single species of nonsegmented RNA. In this communication, we demonstrate that the RNA genomes of different strains of murine coronaviruses recombine during mixed infection at a very high frequency. Susceptible cells were coinfected with a temperature-sensitive mutant of one strain of mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) and a wild-type virus of a different strain. Of 21 randomly isolated viruses released from the coinfected cells at the nonpermissive temperature, 2 were recombinants which differed in the site of recombination. After three serial passages of the original virus pool derived from the mixed infection, the majority of the progeny viruses were recombinants. These recombinant viruses represented at least five different recombination sites between the two parental MHV strains. Such a high-frequency recombination between nonsegmented RNA genomes of MHV suggests that segmented RNA intermediates might be generated during MHV replication. We propose that the RNA replication of MHV proceeds in a discontinuous and nonprocessive manner, thus generating free segmented RNA intermediates, which could be used in RNA recombination via a copy-choice mechanism.
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            A simple and very efficient method for generating cDNA libraries.

            A simple method for generating cDNA libraries from submicrogram quantities of mRNA is described. It combines classical first-strand synthesis with the novel RNase H-DNA polymerase I-mediated second-strand synthesis [Okayama, H., and Berg, P., Mol. Cell. Biol. 2 (1982) 161-170]. Neither the elaborate vector-primer system nor the classical hairpin loop cleavage by S1 nuclease are used. cDNA thus made can be tailed and cloned without further purification or sizing. Cloning efficiencies can be as high as 10(6) recombinants generated per microgram mRNA, a considerable improvement over earlier methods. Using the fully sequenced 1300 nucleotide-long bovine preproenkephalin mRNA, we have established by sequencing that the method yields faithful full-length transcripts. This procedure considerably simplifies the establishment of cDNA libraries and thus the cloning of low-abundance mRNAs.
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              Isolation of coronavirus envelope glycoproteins and interaction with the viral nucleocapsid.

              The two envelope glycoproteins and the viral nucleocapsid of the coronavirus A59 were isolated by solubilization of the viral membrane with Nonidet P-40 at 4 degrees C followed by sucrose density gradient sedimentation. Isolated E2 consisted of rosettes of peplomers, whereas E1, the membrane glycoprotein, was irregular and amorphous. Under certain conditions significant interactions occurred between components of Nonidet P-40-disrupted virions. Incubation of the Nonidet P-40-disrupted virus at 37 degrees C resulted in formation of a complex between one of the viral glycoproteins, E1, and the viral nucleocapsid. This was caused by a temperature-dependent conformational change in E1, resulting in aggregation of E1 and interaction with the viral RNA in the nucleocapsid. E1 also bound rRNA. The E1-nucleocapsid complexes can be distinguished on sucrose and Renografin density gradients from native viral nucleocapsids. The separation of the membrane glycoprotein E1 from the peplomeric glycoprotein E2 permitted preparation of antisera against these isolated proteins. A model is proposed for the arrangement of the three major structural proteins in the coronavirus A59 virion in relation to the viral envelope and RNA.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Virology
                Virology
                Virology
                Published by Elsevier Inc.
                0042-6822
                1096-0341
                6 February 2004
                March 1987
                6 February 2004
                : 157
                : 1
                : 47-57
                Affiliations
                Department of Microbiology, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996-0845 USA
                Author notes
                [1 ]To whom requests for reprints should be addressed.
                Article
                0042-6822(87)90312-6
                10.1016/0042-6822(87)90312-6
                7130558
                3029965
                2a1f3fbd-be26-4f16-9917-d8ca40882a71
                Copyright © 1987 Published by Elsevier Inc.

                Since January 2020 Elsevier has created a COVID-19 resource centre with free information in English and Mandarin on the novel coronavirus COVID-19. The COVID-19 resource centre is hosted on Elsevier Connect, the company's public news and information website. Elsevier hereby grants permission to make all its COVID-19-related research that is available on the COVID-19 resource centre - including this research content - immediately available in PubMed Central and other publicly funded repositories, such as the WHO COVID database with rights for unrestricted research re-use and analyses in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for free by Elsevier for as long as the COVID-19 resource centre remains active.

                History
                : 17 July 1986
                : 22 October 1986
                Categories
                Article

                Microbiology & Virology
                Microbiology & Virology

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