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      Autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxia with spasticity due to a rare mutation in GBA2 gene in a large consanguineous Saudi family


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          The nonlysosomal glucosylceramidase β2 ( GBA2) gene encode an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of glucosylceramide to glucose and ceramide. Mutations in the GBA2 gene have been reported to cause hereditary spastic paraplegia, autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxia with spasticity, and Marinescu-Sjögren-Like Syndrome. In this study, we report the clinical features and genetic diagnosis of autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxia with spasticity due to a rare mutation in GBA2 gene in a large consanguineous Saudi family. We included a large consanguineous Saudi family with a presumptive clinical diagnosis of ataxia at King Abdulaziz Medical City in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The family included six affected individuals and four unaffected in addition to the parents. Whole exome sequencing (WES) was performed for the proband IV-5, and Sanger sequencing was used to confirm the variant in other family members. Segregation study was performed using DNA from the parents and siblings of the proband. Sequence analysis identified a homozygous variant c.2618G>A, p.(Arg873His) in GBA2 gene. The homozygous variant was identified in affected members of the family while the parents and the other four siblings were heterozygous carriers of the variant. One sibling was not available for genetic testing. The variant identified in our patients is classified as pathogenic considering the current evidence of the variant. Autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxia with spasticity is an extremely rare genetic disorder with very few cases reported in the literature. We conclude that the c.2617G>A mutation in GBA2 gene causes the loss of function with abolishment of the enzymatic activity that causes the disease. This report adds further evidence to support the pathogenicity of this variant. The patients had the classical clinical phenotype of cerebellar ataxia and spasticity consistent with previous reports in the literature.

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          The spinocerebellar ataxias.

          Slowly progressive ataxia accompanied by cerebellar degeneration is often genetic in origin. The past 15 years have witnessed a revolution in our understanding of the causes of dominantly inherited ataxias, now known as the spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs). Nearly 30 distinct genetic causes of SCA are known, numbered chronologically in order of discovery. All SCAs display classic cerebellar signs, and many display disabling noncerebellar features, most commonly brainstem dysfunction. Eye movement abnormalities are common, reflecting cerebellar and brainstem degeneration. Visual loss from retinal degeneration is rare in SCA, occurring most commonly and profoundly in SCA7. Although the SCAs are relentlessly progressive and currently untreatable, recent scientific advances have begun to shed light on various disease mechanisms that may lead to preventive therapies.
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            The role of mesenchymal stromal cells in spinal cord injury, regenerative medicine and possible clinical applications.

            Diseases of the central nervous system still remain among the most challenging pathologies known to mankind, having no or limited therapeutic possibilities and a very pessimistic prognosis. Advances in stem cell biology in the last decade have shown that stem cells might provide an inexhaustible source of neurons and glia as well as exerting a neuroprotective effect on the host tissue, thus opening new horizons for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Here, we discuss the progress made in the cell-based therapy of spinal cord injury. An emphasis has been placed on the application of adult mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). We then review the latest and most significant results from in vitro and in vivo research focusing on the regenerative/neuroprotective properties of MSCs. We also attempt to correlate the effect of MSCs with the pathological events that are taking place in the nervous tissue after SCI. Finally, we discuss the results from preclinical and clinical trials involving different routes of MSC application into patients with neurological disorders of the spinal cord. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.
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              Identification of the non-lysosomal glucosylceramidase as beta-glucosidase 2.

              The primary catabolic pathway for glucosylceramide is catalyzed by the lysosomal enzyme glucocerebrosidase that is defective in Gaucher disease patients. A distinct non-lysosomal glucosylceramidase has been described but its identity remained enigmatic for years. We here report that the non-lysosomal glucosylceramidase is identical to the earlier described bile acid beta-glucosidase, being beta-glucosidase 2 (GBA2). Expressed GBA2 is identical to the native non-lysosomal glucosylceramidase in various enzymatic features such as substrate specificity and inhibitor sensitivity. Expression of GBA2 coincides with increased non-lysosomal glucosylceramidase activity, and GBA2-targeted RNA interference reduces endogenous non-lysosomal glucosylceramidase activity in cells. GBA2 is found to be located at or close to the cell surface, and its activity is linked to sphingomyelin generation. Hydrophobic deoxynojirimycins are extremely potent inhibitors for GBA2. In mice pharmacological inhibition of GBA2 activity is associated with impaired spermatogenesis, a phenomenon also very recently reported for GBA2 knock-out mice (Yildiz, Y., Matern, H., Thompson, B., Allegood, J. C., Warren, R. L., Ramirez, D. M., Hammer, R. E., Hamra, F. K., Matern, S., and Russell, D. W. (2006) J. Clin. Invest. 116, 2985-2994). In conclusion, GBA2 plays a role in cellular glucosylceramide metabolism.

                Author and article information

                Genes Dis
                Genes Dis
                Genes & Diseases
                Chongqing Medical University
                27 July 2019
                January 2021
                27 July 2019
                : 8
                : 1
                : 110-114
                [a ]King Abdulaziz Medical City, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
                [b ]King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
                [c ]Sulaiman Bin Abdullah Aba Al-Khail Centre for Interdisciplinary Research in Basic Sciences, International Islamic University, Islamabad, Pakistan
                [d ]Center of Excellence in Genomic Medicine Research, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
                [e ]Department of Medical Laboratory Technology, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
                Author notes
                []Corresponding author. P.O. Box: 12723, Jeddah, 21483, Saudi Arabia. halgahtani@ 123456hotmail.com
                © 2019 Chongqing Medical University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V.

                This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

                : 21 June 2019
                : 18 July 2019
                Full Length Article

                ataxia with spasticity,autosomal recessive,gba2,novel mutation,saudi arabia


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