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      Self-assembly of collagen-based biomaterials: preparation, characterizations and biomedical applications

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          Abstract

          By combining regulatory parameters with characterization methods, researchers can selectively fabricate collagenous biomaterials with various functional responses for biomedical applications.

          Abstract

          The desired mechanical and biological performances of collagen that have led to its broad application as a building block in the biomedical field attributed to its intrinsic hierarchical structure from the nanoscale to macroscale, are discussed herein. Modulating the self-assembly process using regulatory factors can lead to obtaining collagenous materials with tuneable functional performance, which can then determine distinctive cellular responses. Herein, we present an overview of the corresponding characterization techniques used to detect the changes in light transmittance, architecture and mechanics during collagen fibrillogenesis. By combining regulatory parameters with characterization methods, researchers can selectively fabricate collagenous biomaterials with various functional responses.

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          Atomic Force Microscope

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            Porosity of 3D biomaterial scaffolds and osteogenesis.

            Porosity and pore size of biomaterial scaffolds play a critical role in bone formation in vitro and in vivo. This review explores the state of knowledge regarding the relationship between porosity and pore size of biomaterials used for bone regeneration. The effect of these morphological features on osteogenesis in vitro and in vivo, as well as relationships to mechanical properties of the scaffolds, are addressed. In vitro, lower porosity stimulates osteogenesis by suppressing cell proliferation and forcing cell aggregation. In contrast, in vivo, higher porosity and pore size result in greater bone ingrowth, a conclusion that is supported by the absence of reports that show enhanced osteogenic outcomes for scaffolds with low void volumes. However, this trend results in diminished mechanical properties, thereby setting an upper functional limit for pore size and porosity. Thus, a balance must be reached depending on the repair, rate of remodeling and rate of degradation of the scaffold material. Based on early studies, the minimum requirement for pore size is considered to be approximately 100 microm due to cell size, migration requirements and transport. However, pore sizes >300 microm are recommended, due to enhanced new bone formation and the formation of capillaries. Because of vascularization, pore size has been shown to affect the progression of osteogenesis. Small pores favored hypoxic conditions and induced osteochondral formation before osteogenesis, while large pores, that are well-vascularized, lead to direct osteogenesis (without preceding cartilage formation). Gradients in pore sizes are recommended for future studies focused on the formation of multiple tissues and tissue interfaces. New fabrication techniques, such as solid-free form fabrication, can potentially be used to generate scaffolds with morphological and mechanical properties more selectively designed to meet the specificity of bone-repair needs.
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              Biomaterials & scaffolds for tissue engineering

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                JMCBDV
                Journal of Materials Chemistry B
                J. Mater. Chem. B
                Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)
                2050-750X
                2050-7518
                2018
                2018
                : 6
                : 18
                : 2650-2676
                Affiliations
                [1 ]College of Food Science and Technology and MOE Key Laboratory of Environment Correlative Dietology
                [2 ]Huazhong Agricultural University
                [3 ]Wuhan 430070
                [4 ]P. R. China
                [5 ]Collaborative Innovation Center for Efficient and Health Production of Fisheries in Hunan Province
                [6 ]Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Sensor Technology and Biomedical Instrument
                [7 ]School of Engineering
                [8 ]Sun Yat-sen University
                [9 ]Guangzhou 510006
                Article
                10.1039/C7TB02999C
                2c1e33b7-c0ca-4e7b-b203-382af0a3e392
                © 2018

                http://rsc.li/journals-terms-of-use

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