Kyota Fujita 1 , Toshihiro Seike 1 , Noriko Yutsudo 2 , Mizuki Ohno 2 , Hidetaka Yamada 2 , Hiroo Yamaguchi 2 , Kunihiko Sakumi 2 , Yukiko Yamakawa 1 , Mizuho A. Kido 3 , Atsushi Takaki 4 , Toshihiko Katafuchi 4 , Yoshinori Tanaka 5 , Yusaku Nakabeppu 2 , Mami Noda 1 , *
30 September 2009
It has been shown that molecular hydrogen (H 2) acts as a therapeutic antioxidant and suppresses brain injury by buffering the effects of oxidative stress. Chronic oxidative stress causes neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD). Here, we show that drinking H 2-containing water significantly reduced the loss of dopaminergic neurons in PD model mice using both acute and chronic administration of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). The concentration-dependency of H 2 showed that H 2 as low as 0.08 ppm had almost the same effect as saturated H 2 water (1.5 ppm). MPTP-induced accumulation of cellular 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG), a marker of DNA damage, and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), a marker of lipid peroxidation were significantly decreased in the nigro-striatal dopaminergic pathway in mice drinking H 2-containing water, whereas production of superoxide (O 2• −) detected by intravascular injection of dihydroethidium (DHE) was not reduced significantly. Our results indicated that low concentration of H 2 in drinking water can reduce oxidative stress in the brain. Thus, drinking H 2-containing water may be useful in daily life to prevent or minimize the risk of life style-related oxidative stress and neurodegeneration.