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      The emergence of grammar: systematic structure in a new language.

      Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
      Adult, Deafness, genetics, psychology, Ethnic Groups, Humans, Israel, Language Development, Sign Language

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          Abstract

          This report contains a linguistic description of a language created spontaneously without any apparent external influence in a stable existing community. We describe the syntactic structure of Al-Sayyid Bedouin Sign Language, a language that has arisen in the last 70 years in an isolated endogamous community with a high incidence of nonsyndromic, genetically recessive, profound prelingual neurosensory deafness. In the space of one generation from its inception, systematic grammatical structure has emerged in the language. Going beyond a conventionalized list of words for actions, objects, people, characteristics, and so on, a systematic way of marking the grammatical relations among those elements has appeared in the form of highly regular word order. These systematic structures cannot be attributed to influence from other languages, because the particular word orders that appear in Al-Sayyid Bedouin Sign Language differ from those found both in the ambient spoken languages in the community and in the other sign language found predominantly in the surrounding area. Therefore, the emerging grammatical structures should be regarded as an independent development within the language.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          15699343
          548320
          10.1073/pnas.0405448102

          Chemistry
          Adult,Deafness,genetics,psychology,Ethnic Groups,Humans,Israel,Language Development,Sign Language
          Chemistry
          Adult, Deafness, genetics, psychology, Ethnic Groups, Humans, Israel, Language Development, Sign Language

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