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      The association between expression of IFIT1 in podocytes of MRL/lpr mice and the renal pathological changes it causes: An animal study

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          Abstract

          Renal damage is the major cause of SLE associated mortality, and IFIT1expression was elevated in SLE cases in accordance of previous studies. Therefore, we conducted an animal study to identify the role of IFIT1 expression in renal pathological changes.18 female MRL/lpr mice and same number of female BALB/c mice were enrolled in present study. Quantitative analysis of urine protein, Complement C3 and C4, and anti-ds DNA antibody were conducted. HE and PAS staining and TEM analysis were employed to observe the pathological changes in renal tissue. Significant elevation on urine protein and anti-dsDNA and reduction on Complement C3 and C4 were observed in MRL/lpr mice when comparing the controls in same age. Staining and TEM analysis observed several pathological changes in glomerulus among MRL/lpr mice, including cellular enlargement, basement membrane thickening, and increased cellularcasts. The linear regression analysis found the optical density of IFIT1 was inversely associated with F-actin, Nephrin, and Podocin, but not Synatopodin. In summary, IFIT1 expression is associated with podocytes damage, and capable of suppressing some proteins essential to glomerular filtration.

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          Activation of the interferon-alpha pathway identifies a subgroup of systemic lupus erythematosus patients with distinct serologic features and active disease.

          Gene-expression studies have demonstrated increased expression of interferon (IFN)-inducible genes (IFIGs) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of many patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), with a predominant effect of type I IFN. This study examined the hypothesis that increased disease severity and activity, as well as distinct autoantibody specificities, characterize SLE patients with activation of the type I IFN pathway. Freshly isolated PBMCs from 77 SLE patients, 22 disease controls, and 28 healthy donors were subjected to real-time polymerase chain reaction for 3 IFIGs that are preferentially induced by IFNalpha, and the data were used to derive IFNalpha scores for all individuals. Expression of IFIGs was significantly higher in SLE patients compared with disease controls or healthy donors. SLE patients with high and low IFNalpha scores were compared for clinical manifestations of disease, disease severity, disease activity, serologic features, and potential confounders, by bivariate and multivariate analyses. SLE patients with a high IFNalpha score had a significantly higher prevalence of renal disease, a greater number of American College of Rheumatology criteria for SLE, and a higher Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics damage index (SDI) score than did SLE patients with low IFNalpha scores. Patients with high scores showed increased disease activity, as measured by lower C3 levels, hemoglobin levels, absolute lymphocyte counts, and albumin levels, and a higher anti-double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) titer, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and SLE Disease Activity Index 2000 score. The presence of antibodies specific for Ro, U1 RNP, Sm, and dsDNA, but not phospholipids, was significantly associated with a high IFNalpha score. Logistic regression analysis confirmed that renal disease, higher SDI scores, low complement levels, and presence of anti-RNA binding protein (RBP) autoantibodies were associated with a high IFNalpha score. Activation of the IFNalpha pathway defines a subgroup of SLE patients whose condition is characterized by increased disease severity, including renal disease, increased disease activity, reflected in complement activation, and autoreactivity to RBP.
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            Actin up: regulation of podocyte structure and function by components of the actin cytoskeleton.

            Podocytes of the renal glomerulus are unique cells with a complex cellular organization consisting of a cell body, major processes and foot processes. Podocyte foot processes form a characteristic interdigitating pattern with foot processes of neighboring podocytes, leaving in between the filtration slits that are bridged by the glomerular slit diaphragm. The highly dynamic foot processes contain an actin-based contractile apparatus comparable to that of smooth muscle cells or pericytes. Mutations affecting several podocyte proteins lead to rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton, disruption of the filtration barrier and subsequent renal disease. The fact that the dynamic regulation of the podocyte cytoskeleton is vital to kidney function has led to podocytes emerging as an excellent model system for studying actin cytoskeleton dynamics in a physiological context.
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              A Hierarchical Role for Classical Pathway Complement Proteins in the Clearance of Apoptotic Cells in Vivo

              The strongest susceptibility genes for the development of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in humans are null mutants of classical pathway complement proteins. There is a hierarchy of disease susceptibility and severity according to the position of the missing protein in the activation pathway, with the severest disease associated with C1q deficiency. Here we demonstrate, using novel in vivo models of apoptotic cell clearance during sterile peritonitis, a similar hierarchical role for classical pathway complement proteins in vivo in the clearance of apoptotic cells by macrophages. Our results constitute the first demonstration of an impairment in the phagocytosis of apoptotic cells by macrophages in vivo in a mammalian system. Apoptotic cells are thought to be a major source of the autoantigens of SLE, and impairment of their removal by complement may explain the link between hereditary complement deficiency and the development of SLE.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Oncotarget
                Oncotarget
                Oncotarget
                ImpactJ
                Oncotarget
                Impact Journals LLC
                1949-2553
                22 November 2016
                3 November 2016
                : 7
                : 47
                : 76464-76470
                Affiliations
                1 Rheumatism Department, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Quanzhou, Fujian Province, China
                Author notes
                Correspondence to: Xiaoqing Chen, xqchen_qz@ 123456sina.com
                Article
                13045
                10.18632/oncotarget.13045
                5363523
                27823966
                2cd66843-49a3-4c8d-8ed2-5f5d67065c58
                Copyright: © 2016 Hu et al.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                History
                : 28 July 2016
                : 28 October 2016
                Categories
                Research Paper: Immunology

                Oncology & Radiotherapy
                ifit1,podocytes,animal study,renal pathological changes,lupus nephritis,immunology and microbiology section,immune response,immunity

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