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      Probability-based protein identification by searching sequence databases using mass spectrometry data

      , , ,

      Electrophoresis

      Wiley

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          Abstract

          Several algorithms have been described in the literature for protein identification by searching a sequence database using mass spectrometry data. In some approaches, the experimental data are peptide molecular weights from the digestion of a protein by an enzyme. Other approaches use tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) data from one or more peptides. Still others combine mass data with amino acid sequence data. We present results from a new computer program, Mascot, which integrates all three types of search. The scoring algorithm is probability based, which has a number of advantages: (i) A simple rule can be used to judge whether a result is significant or not. This is particularly useful in guarding against false positives. (ii) Scores can be compared with those from other types of search, such as sequence homology. (iii) Search parameters can be readily optimised by iteration. The strengths and limitations of probability-based scoring are discussed, particularly in the context of high throughput, fully automated protein identification.

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          Most cited references 25

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          Method to correlate tandem mass spectra of modified peptides to amino acid sequences in the protein database.

          A method to correlate uninterpreted tandem mass spectra of modified peptides, produced under low-energy (10-50 eV) collision conditions, with amino acid sequences in a protein database has been developed. The fragmentation patterns observed in the tandem mass spectra of peptides containing covalent modifications is used to directly search and fit linear amino acid sequences in the database. Specific information relevant to sites of modification is not contained in the character-based sequence information of the databases. The search method considers each putative modification site as both modified and unmodified in one pass through the database and simultaneously considers up to three different sites of modification. The search method will identify the correct sequence if the tandem mass spectrum did not represent a modified peptide. This approach is demonstrated with peptides containing modifications such as S-carboxymethylated cysteine, oxidized methionine, phosphoserine, phosphothreonine, or phosphotyrosine. In addition, a scanning approach is used in which neutral loss scans are used to initiate the acquisition of product ion MS/MS spectra of doubly charged phosphorylated peptides during a single chromatographic run for data analysis with the database-searching algorithm. The approach described in this paper provides a convenient method to match the nascent tandem mass spectra of modified peptides to sequences in a protein database and thereby identify previously unknown sites of modification.
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            Complementary DNA sequencing: expressed sequence tags and human genome project

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              Analytical properties of the nanoelectrospray ion source.

               Matthias Wilm,  V Mann (1996)
              The nanoelectrospray ion source (nanoES) has recently been developed and described theoretically. It is different from conventional electrospray sources and from other miniaturized electrospray sources by (i) its 1-2 microns spraying orifice achieved by pulling the spraying capillary to a fine tip, (ii) its very low flow rate of approximately 20 nL/min and the small size of droplets it generates, and (iii) the absence of solvent pumps and inlet valves. The fabrication and operation of nanoES needles is described in detail. Solutions with up to 0.1 M salt contents could be sprayed without sheath flow or pneumatic assist. Improved desolvation in nanoES led to instrument-limited resolution of the signals of a glycoprotein and the ability to signal average extensively allowed the C-terminal sequencing of a 40 kDa protein. Extensive mass spectrometric and tandem mass spectrometric investigation of the components of an unseparated peptide mixture was demonstrated by verification of 93% of the sequence of carbonic anhydrase. A rapid and robust desalting/concentration step coupled to the nanoES procedure allows the direct analysis of impure samples such as peptide mixtures extracted after in-gel digestion.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Electrophoresis
                Electrophoresis
                Wiley
                0173-0835
                1522-2683
                December 01 1999
                December 01 1999
                : 20
                : 18
                : 3551-3567
                Article
                10.1002/(SICI)1522-2683(19991201)20:18<3551::AID-ELPS3551>3.0.CO;2-2
                10612281
                © 1999

                http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/tdm_license_1.1

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