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      Simple model of spiking neurons.

      IEEE transactions on neural networks / a publication of the IEEE Neural Networks Council

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          Abstract

          A model is presented that reproduces spiking and bursting behavior of known types of cortical neurons. The model combines the biologically plausibility of Hodgkin-Huxley-type dynamics and the computational efficiency of integrate-and-fire neurons. Using this model, one can simulate tens of thousands of spiking cortical neurons in real time (1 ms resolution) using a desktop PC.

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          Most cited references 8

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          NEURAL EXCITABILITY, SPIKING AND BURSTING

          Bifurcation mechanisms involved in the generation of action potentials (spikes) by neurons are reviewed here. We show how the type of bifurcation determines the neuro-computational properties of the cells. For example, when the rest state is near a saddle-node bifurcation, the cell can fire all-or-none spikes with an arbitrary low frequency, it has a well-defined threshold manifold, and it acts as an integrator; i.e. the higher the frequency of incoming pulses, the sooner it fires. In contrast, when the rest state is near an Andronov–Hopf bifurcation, the cell fires in a certain frequency range, its spikes are not all-or-none, it does not have a well-defined threshold manifold, it can fire in response to an inhibitory pulse, and it acts as a resonator; i.e. it responds preferentially to a certain (resonant) frequency of the input. Increasing the input frequency may actually delay or terminate its firing. We also describe the phenomenon of neural bursting, and we use geometric bifurcation theory to extend the existing classification of bursters, including many new types. We discuss how the type of burster defines its neuro-computational properties, and we show that different bursters can interact, synchronize and process information differently.
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            Two networks of electrically coupled inhibitory neurons in neocortex.

            Inhibitory interneurons are critical to sensory transformations, plasticity and synchronous activity in the neocortex. There are many types of inhibitory neurons, but their synaptic organization is poorly understood. Here we describe two functionally distinct inhibitory networks comprising either fast-spiking (FS) or low-threshold spiking (LTS) neurons. Paired-cell recordings showed that inhibitory neurons of the same type were strongly interconnected by electrical synapses, but electrical synapses between different inhibitory cell types were rare. The electrical synapses were strong enough to synchronize spikes in coupled interneurons. Inhibitory chemical synapses were also common between FS cells, and between FS and LTS cells, but LTS cells rarely inhibited one another. Thalamocortical synapses, which convey sensory information to the cortex, specifically and strongly excited only the FS cell network. The electrical and chemical synaptic connections of different types of inhibitory neurons are specific, and may allow each inhibitory network to function independently.
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              Intrinsic firing patterns of diverse neocortical neurons.

              Neurons of the neocortex differ dramatically in the patterns of action potentials they generate in response to current steps. Regular-spiking cells adapt strongly during maintained stimuli, whereas fast-spiking cells can sustain very high firing frequencies with little or no adaptation. Intrinsically bursting cells generate clusters of spikes (bursts), either singly or repetitively. These physiological distinctions have morphological correlates. RS and IB cells can be either pyramidal neurons or spiny stellate cells, and thus constitute the excitatory cells of the cortex. FS cells are smooth or sparsely spiny non-pyramidal cells, and are likely to be GABAergic inhibitory interneurons. The different firing properties of neurons in neocortex contribute significantly to its network behavior.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                18244602
                10.1109/TNN.2003.820440

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