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      Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in dogs of riverside communities of Mato Grosso Pantanal, Brazil Translated title: Soroprevalência de Toxoplasma gondii em cães de comunidades ribeirinhas do Pantanal de Mato Grosso, Brasil

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          Abstract

          Abstract Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular protozoan with worldwide distribution and dogs act as sentinels of human infection. This search aimed to determine the occurrence of antibodies against T. gondii in dogs of the communities on the Cuiabá River, Mato Grosso and variables associated with infection. The dogs of the riverside communities in Cuiabá River, which includes Barranco Alto, Praia do Poço, Engenho Velho, Varginha, Bom Sucesso, Passagem da Conceição and São Gonçalo Beira Rio, were evaluated for the presence of T. gondii antibodies by indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT). The prevalence and factors associated with infection were calculated by chi-squared test (χ2) or Fisher’s exact test, and univariate and multiple analysis. Of the 248 dogs surveyed, 107 (43.1%) were seropositive for T. gondii. The seroprevalence ranged from 25.6% to 64.3%. There was no statistically significant difference between the communities studied (p > 0.05). As for the associated factors, the only statistically significant factor was that of dogs living with cats (p = 0.02), with approximately twice the risk of acquiring infection. In conclusion, the seroprevalence in dogs of riverside communities in the Baixada Cuiabana demonstrated that high rates of infection, being the factor associated with infection, contact with domestic cats.

          Translated abstract

          Resumo Toxoplasma gondii é um protozoário intracelular com distribuição mundial e o cão atua como sentinela para infecção humana. Esta pesquisa teve por objetivo determinar a ocorrência de anticorpos contra T. gondii em cães de comunidades ribeirinhas ao Rio Cuiabá, Mato Grosso e as variáveis associadas à infecção. Os cães das comunidades ribeirinhas do Rio Cuiabá, que inclui Barranco Alto, Praia do Poço, Engenho Velho, Varginha, Bom Sucesso, Passagem da Conceição e São Gonçalo Beira Rio, foram avaliados para a presença de anticorpos para T. gondii pela reação de imunofluorescência indireta (IFI). A prevalência e fatores associados com a infecção foram calculados pelo teste de qui-quadrado (χ2) ou exato de Fisher, e análise univariada e multivariada. Dos 248 cães estudados, 107 (43,1%) foram soropositivos para T. gondii. A prevalência variou de 25,6% a 64,3%. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa entre as comunidades estudadas (p > 0,05). Quanto aos fatores associados, o único fator estatisticamente significante o convívio com gatos (p = 0,02), com cerca de duas vezes mais risco de adquirir a infecção. Em conclusão, a soroprevalência em cães de comunidades ribeirinhas da Baixada Cuiabana demonstram altas taxas de infecção, sendo o fator associado à infecção, o contato com gatos domésticos.

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          Prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii and intestinal parasites in stray, farm and household cats in Spain.

          Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii was tested for in 585 cats in different regions of Spain. Sera were tested by the indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT). Specific antitoxoplasma IgG (IFAT titer>or=1/80) were found in 189 of 585 (32.3%): 117 of 317 (36.9%) stray cats, 16 of 48 (33.3%) farm cats and 56 of 220 (25.5%) household cats. The overall prevalence was significantly higher in stray groups (36.4% of 365) than in household cats (25.5% of 220), higher in adult cats (>6 months old, 36.8% of 443) than in juvenile cats (<6 months old, 13.9% of 101), and higher in male stray cats (45.3% of 128) than in female stray cats (32% of 153). Prevalence of intestinal parasites was also analysed by a routine coprological method in 382 of the 585 cats. Intestinal parasites were found in 107 faecal samples (28%): 76 of 231 (32.9%) stray cats, 14 of 48 (29.2%) farm cats and 17 of 103 (16.5%) household cats. T. gondii oocysts were not found in any faecal samples analysed. The following prevalences of other intestinal parasites were found: Toxocara cati (18.3%), Toxascaris leonina (1.3%), Ancylostoma sp. (1%), Capillaria spp. (1.3%), Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (1%), Taenia like (3.7%), Dipylidium caninum (2.6%) and Cystoisospora spp. (6.3%).
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            Serosurvey of Dogs for Human, Livestock, and Wildlife Pathogens, Uganda

            To the Editor: Domestic dogs live in close association with humans and livestock, participating in the transmission of diseases of zoonotic, veterinary, and conservation interest ( 1 , 2 ). Most households in Uganda have traditionally kept dogs for hunting and for help with herding, security, and guarding livestock. Most dogs receive no prophylactic measures (e.g., vaccinations) and roam freely; this situation exposes them to pathogens from eating garbage, rodents, and stillborn animals and other carcasses and through inhalation during scent communication. Thus, dogs are a reservoir for certain pathogens and a useful sentinel for others ( 3 ). In 2011, serum samples were obtained from 116 mixed-breed dogs during a rabies vaccination campaign in and near 3 national parks in southwestern Uganda; the dogs were >4 months of age and were voluntarily brought in by their owners (Figure, Appendix, Table). Two of the parks, Bwindi Impenetrable (BI) and Mgahinga Gorilla (MG), have some of the most biologically diverse tropical forests in eastern Africa and are home to mountain gorillas. The third park, Queen Elizabeth (QE), is home to populations of protected carnivores and ungulates. The parks lie within a densely populated rural landscape; in some areas, the population is as high as 500 persons/km2. Figure Map of Uganda showing 3 areas where a serosurvery for human and animal pathogens was conducted among dogs. 1, Queen Elizabeth National Park; 2, Bwindi Impenetrable National Park; 3, Mgahinga Gorilla National Park. Table Methodology and seroprevalence for selected pathogens in rural dogs in 3 national parks, Uganda, 2011* Pathogen Test, cutoff value, and ref or kit National park All 3 parks Queen Elizabeth† Bwindi Impenetrable‡ Mgahinga Gorilla§ Sample size Prevalence, % (95% CI) Sample size Prevalence, % (95% CI) Sample size Prevalence, % (95% CI) Sample size Prevalence, % (95% CI) Rabies virus¶ FAVN, 0.24 IU/mL ( 4 ) 101 19.8 (12.7–28.6) 23 21.7 (9.0–43.3) 56 19.6 (11.0–32.0) 22 16.7 (5.9–37.2) CDV c-ELISA, Ingezim Moquillo IgG# 92 100.0 (95.9–100) 30 100 (88.8–100.0) 39 100 (91.4–100.0) 23 100 (85.4–100.0) CPV c-ELISA, Ingezim CPV# 92 65.2 (54.9–74.5) 26 80.8 (61.7–92.1) 43 76.7 (61.7–87.6) 23 26.1 (12.0–47.8) Leptospira interrogans** MAT, 1:200 (15) 105 26.7 (19.0–36.1) 27 25.9 (12.4–46.2) 55 29.1 (17.9–42.7) 23 21.7 (9.0–43.3) Leishmania sp.†† c-ELISA, Ingezim Leishmania# 92 19.6 (12.3–29.2) 26 19.2 (7.9–38.3) 43 25.6 (14.6–40.6) 23 8.7 (1.6–27.8) Toxoplasma gondii MAT, 1:25 ( 3 ) 109 90.8 (83.6–95.1) 30 90.0 (73.7–97.2) 56 98.2 (90.5–99.9) 23 73.9 (52.2–88.0) Neospora caninum c-ELISA, 30% ( 3 ) 109 27.5 (19.6–36.6) 30 26.7 (13.1–45.0) 56 32.1 (21.2–45.5) 23 30.4 (14.5–52.2) *Ref, reference; FAVN, fluorescent antibody virus neutralization; CPV, canine parvovirus; c-ELISA, competitive ELISA; CDV, canine distemper virus; MAT, modified agglutination test.
†0°12′ S, 30°0′ E (savannah).
‡1°0′ S, 29°42′ E (tropical forest).
§1°16′ S, 29°40′ E (tropical forest).
¶Four dogs vaccinated against rabies in Queen Elizabeth are not included in these results.
#Manufactured by Ingenasa, Madrid, Spain.
**Fourteen serovars were investigated. Of the dogs seropositive, 71.5% were seropositive to 1 serovar and 28.5% to 2 serovars. Reacting serovars were Icterohaemorragiae (42.8% of positive dogs), Canicola (39.2%), Pyrogenes (21.4%), Tarassovi (10.7%), and Gryppothiposa and Australis (7.2% each).
††Antibodies probably correspond to contact with Leishmania donovani. Of the 116 sampled dogs, 4 had been vaccinated against rabies by the authors in 2010 in QE (not included in rabies results), and 11 (all males) had been castrated by local animal healers before serum samples were obtained. The samples were used to test for seroprevalence rates to rabies virus (RABV), canine distemper virus (CDV), canine parvovirus (CPV), Leptospira interrogans, Leishmania sp., Toxoplasma gondii, and Neospora caninum (Table). Seroprevalence rates ranged from 20% to 100% (Table). CPV seroprevalence was higher in BI and QE than in MG (χ2 >12.6, p<0.001); T. gondii seroprevalence was higher in BI than in MG (Fisher p = 0.002); and RABV seroprevalence was higher in castrated than noncastrated dogs (50% vs. 10%; Fisher p = 0.005). For humans, the domestic dog is the main source of exposure to RABV. The possibility that the presence of the rabies titers in the dog serum samples was due to a previous vaccination can be ruled out because the only previous recent campaign in the area was conducted by the authors. Antibodies against RABV in apparently healthy dogs have been reported in Africa ( 6 ), and rabies seems to be not invariably fatal in dogs. Dogs that have recovered from a rabies infection are prone to shed RABV in their saliva for long periods ( 7 ). Antibodies against RABV were more frequently found in castrated dogs. This finding may be due to an increase in virus-related deaths among noncastrated dogs; such dogs tend to be more aggressive and to roam, so they may come more frequently into contact with pathogenic RABV strains. Results indicate that both CDV and CPV are actively circulating in the studied dog populations. High CDV seroprevalence rates have been reported among other rural dog populations in Africa ( 8 ). Sick, debilitated pups are at high risk for predation by wild carnivores, so spillover may take place. A dog population exhibiting similar characteristics to the population we studied was believed to be the origin of the 1994 CDV epidemic among Serengeti wildlife ( 8 ). Furthermore, carnivores use feces for scent communication, so the probability of infection by CPV in wild carnivores in the study area may also be high. In developing countries, leptospirosis is emerging as a major public health problem and also causes enormous economic losses because of disease in livestock ( 9 ). The most commonly detected serovars in this study were those that have rats and dogs as reservoirs (Table). Visceral leishmaniasis in humans is also a major health problem in several areas of eastern Africa, where the number of cases has dramatically increased during the past 20 years. Transmission of Leishmania donovani in eastern Africa may take place through anthroponotic or zoonotic cycles, although, to our knowledge, no reservoir host had been identified ( 10 ). The mean T. gondii seroprevalence detected during this survey appears to be the highest reported for dogs worldwide. This protozoon has implications for human and animal health, and dogs, who probably become infected with T. gondii when eating raw meat, are a good sentinel for environmental contamination by this parasite. On the other hand, dogs serve as the definitive host for N. caninum, which is a major cause of abortions in cattle and causes economic losses wherever it is enzootic. Some of these diseases may also have implications for the conservation of endangered mountain gorillas. Diseases such as leptospirosis, toxoplasmosis, and especially, rabies could be fatal for gorillas, and there are unpublished reports of fights between hunting dogs and gorillas. Our work should serve as a first step toward the establishment of preventive strategies for improvements in the health of humans and domestic animals living in rural Uganda and for the health of the country’s unique wildlife. Tracing the role of dogs in the cycle of the studied pathogens is crucial for the design of control programs.
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              Toxoplasmosis, leptospirosis and brucellosis in stray dogs housed at the shelter in Umuarama municipality, Paraná, Brazil

              Background Leptospirosis, toxoplasmosis and brucellosis are diseases with worldwide distribution. Among stray dogs, these zoonoses are facilitated by direct contact with other animal species, by the habit of scavenging garbage and hunting in search of food, drinking standing water, smelling other animals’ urine, licking female genitalia and the sexual act itself. The objective of this study was to detect antibodies anti-Toxoplasma gondii, anti-Leptospira spp., anti-Brucella canis and anti-Brucella abortus in stray dogs housed in shelters at Umuarama city, Paraná, Brazil. In order to detect toxoplasmosis, indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) was performed, agglutination microscopic (MAT) test for leptospirosis and agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) and buffered acidified antigen (BAA) tests for brucellosis. Results Of the 175 serum samples analyzed, 70.85% were considered positive for toxoplasmosis by IFA, 20% by MAT for leptospirosis and 2.85% by AGID for Brucella canis. Conclusions The serological results of this study showed that stray dogs housed at the private shelter are potential carriers of these three different zoonoses and contribute to the spread and maintenance of these etiologic agents in the urban area of Umuarama (PR), Brazil.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                rbpv
                Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária
                Rev. Bras. Parasitol. Vet.
                Colégio Brasileiro de Parasitologia Veterinária (Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil )
                0103-846X
                1984-2961
                December 2016
                : 25
                : 4
                : 531-535
                Affiliations
                Cuiabá Mato Grosso orgnameUniversidade Federal de Mato Grosso orgdiv1Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária Brazil
                Article
                S1984-29612016000400531
                10.1590/s1984-29612016067
                27925062

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

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