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      Development and Evaluation of Culturally and Linguistically Tailored Mobile App to Promote Breast Cancer Screening

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          Abstract

          Background: While a significant breast cancer burden exists for Korean American immigrant women, their cancer screening behavior is strikingly poor, and few interventions have focused on this population. To promote breast cancer screening behavior in Korean American immigrant women, a mobile phone multimedia messaging intervention (mMammogram) was developed. Objective: The current study explores the impact of mMammogram on changes to study participants’ screening behavior and proposes suggestions for how the intervention can be improved for wide dissemination and implementation in the Korean American community. Material and Methods: Data were collected through qualitative research methods. Three focus groups were conducted with 14 Korean immigrant women who completed the mMammogram. Findings: Three themes emerged: (1) better understanding of breast cancer and screening through mMammogram (e.g., increased knowledge on breast cancer and screening methods, increased understanding of the importance of regular mammography, and reduced anxiety about mammography); (2) health navigators as a trigger to promote mammography (e.g., providing resources for free or low-cost mammograms and scheduling mammogram appointments); and (3) suggestions for mMammogram (e.g., technical issues and program period). Conclusions: Mobile app intervention that is culturally tailored, along with health navigation services, can be a feasible, effective, and acceptable tool to promote breast cancer screening behaviors in underserved immigrant women. A mobile app can cover a broad range of breast cancer health topics and the health navigator can further help women overcome barriers to screening. A health navigation service is critical in overcoming language, transportation, and health accessibility barriers and triggering a positive change in their health screening behavior, especially for newly arrived immigrant populations.

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          Most cited references 30

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          A review of the use of mobile phone text messaging in clinical and healthy behaviour interventions.

          We reviewed the literature on the use of text messaging for clinical and healthy behaviour interventions. Electronic databases were searched in December 2009 using keywords related to text messaging and health interventions. The final review included 24 articles. Of those, seven covered medication adherence, eight discussed clinical management and nine reported on health-related behaviour modification. Sixteen were randomized controlled trials (RCT), five were non-controlled pre-post comparison studies and three were feasibility pilots not reporting a behavioural outcome. The frequency of messaging ranged from multiple messages daily to one message per month. Among the 16 RCTs, 10 reported significant improvement with interventions and six reported differences suggesting positive trends. Text messaging received good acceptance and showed early efficacy in most studies. However, the evidence base is compromised by methodological limitations and is not yet conclusive.
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            Using navigators to improve care of underserved patients: current practices and approaches.

            Logistic, cultural, educational, and other barriers can impede the delivery of high-quality cancer care to underserved patients. Patient navigation services represent one innovation for addressing perceived barriers to care encountered by disadvantaged patients. In this report, the authors have 1) defined patient navigation, distinguishing it from other cancer support services; 2) described how programs are organized; and 3) discussed the need for research on program effectiveness. Information was examined on navigation programs published in the scientific literature and on line. Qualitative research also was conducted, consisting of direct observation of patient care in cancer clinics with and without navigators in northern California, in-person interviews with personnel and patients in the clinics observed, and telephone interviews with navigators at four sites across the United States. The authors found that navigation services have been implemented at all stages of cancer care: prevention, screening, treatment, and survival. Navigators differ from other cancer support personnel in their orientation toward flexible problem solving to overcome perceived barriers to care rather than the provision of a predefined set of services. There are no rigorous demonstrations of the effects and effectiveness of navigation, although such studies are underway. Currently, patient navigation is understudied, and literature documenting its effects and effectiveness is scant. Rigorous studies are needed of the navigator role and program costs and benefits. Such studies will facilitate an assessment of program effectiveness, feasibility across a range of health care settings, and performance relative to alternative approaches for addressing barriers to care among the underserved.
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              Barriers to health care for undocumented immigrants: a literature review

              With the unprecedented international migration seen in recent years, policies that limit health care access have become prevalent. Barriers to health care for undocumented immigrants go beyond policy and range from financial limitations, to discrimination and fear of deportation. This paper is aimed at reviewing the literature on barriers to health care for undocumented immigrants and identifying strategies that have or could be used to address these barriers. To address study questions, we conducted a literature review of published articles from the last 10 years in PubMed using three main concepts: immigrants, undocumented, and access to health care. The search yielded 341 articles of which 66 met study criteria. With regard to barriers, we identified barriers in the policy arena focused on issues related to law and policy including limitations to access and type of health care. These varied widely across countries but ultimately impacted the type and amount of health care any undocumented immigrant could receive. Within the health system, barriers included bureaucratic obstacles including paperwork and registration systems. The alternative care available (safety net) was generally limited and overwhelmed. Finally, there was evidence of widespread discriminatory practices within the health care system itself. The individual level focused on the immigrant’s fear of deportation, stigma, and lack of capital (both social and financial) to obtain services. Recommendations identified in the papers reviewed included advocating for policy change to increase access to health care for undocumented immigrants, providing novel insurance options, expanding safety net services, training providers to better care for immigrant populations, and educating undocumented immigrants on navigating the system. There are numerous barriers to health care for undocumented immigrants. These vary by country and frequently change. Despite concerns that access to health care attracts immigrants, data demonstrates that people generally do not migrate to obtain health care. Solutions are needed that provide for noncitizens’ health care.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Clin Med
                J Clin Med
                jcm
                Journal of Clinical Medicine
                MDPI
                2077-0383
                24 July 2018
                August 2018
                : 7
                : 8
                Affiliations
                [1 ]School of Social Work, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487, USA
                [2 ]College of Health and Human Performance, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC 27858, USA; leemih17@ 123456ecu.edu
                [3 ]School of Kinesiology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA; gaoz@ 123456umn.edu
                [4 ]Masonic Cancer Center, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA; ktsadak@ 123456umn.edu
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: hlee94@ 123456ua.edu ; Tel: +1-205-348-6553
                Article
                jcm-07-00181
                10.3390/jcm7080181
                6111615
                30042291
                © 2018 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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