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      Balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration of gastric varices with gastrorenal shunt: long-term follow-up in 78 patients.

      AJR. American journal of roentgenology

      Adult, Aged, Aged, 80 and over, Balloon Occlusion, Embolization, Therapeutic, Esophageal and Gastric Varices, etiology, therapy, Female, Follow-Up Studies, Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage, Humans, Liver Cirrhosis, complications, Male, Middle Aged, Proportional Hazards Models, Recurrence, Survival Analysis, Treatment Outcome

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          Our aim was to evaluate the long-term clinical results after balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (B-RTO) for gastric varices with spontaneous gastrorenal shunt. A total of 78 patients with cirrhosis and with gastric varices, successfully treated by B-RTO, were enrolled in this study. Recurrence and bleeding of gastric varices and worsening of esophageal varices were endoscopically evaluated. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to assess the prognostic factors for worsening of esophageal varices and survival. Recurrence of gastric varices was found in two patients; the 5-year recurrence rate was 2.7%. Bleeding of gastric varices occurred in only one patient after B-RTO; the 5-year bleeding rate was 1.5%. Worsening of esophageal varices was observed in 29 patients, and the worsening rates at 1, 3, and 5 years were 27%, 58%, and 66%, respectively. These esophageal varices were endoscopically treated to prevent rupture. Multivariate analysis showed the presence of esophageal varices before B-RTO was a prognostic factor for worsening (relative risk, 4.956). At a median follow-up of 700 days (range, 137-2,339 days), the survival rates at 1, 3, and 5 years were 93%, 76%, and 54%, respectively. The prognostic factors associated with survival were presence of hepatocellular carcinoma (relative risk, 24.342) and the Child-Pugh classification (relative risk, 5.780). B-RTO is an effective method for gastric varices with gastrorenal shunt and provides lower recurrence and bleeding rates. We believe that B-RTO can become a standard treatment for gastric varices with gastrorenal shunt, although treatment of worsened esophageal varices may be necessary after B-RTO.

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