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      Meta-analysis: the effects of smoking on the disposition of two commonly used antipsychotic agents, olanzapine and clozapine

      1 , 1 , 2

      BMJ Open

      BMJ Publishing Group

      Mental Health

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          Abstract

          Objective

          To clarify the effects of smoking on the disposition of two commonly used antipsychotics, olanzapine and clozapine, and to create standards to adjust the doses of these drugs in clinical practice based on the smoking status.

          Design

          A meta-analysis was conducted by searching MEDLINE, Scopus and the Cochrane Library for relevant prospective and retrospective studies.

          Included studies

          We included the studies that investigated the effects of smoking on the concentration to dose (C/D) ratio of olanzapine or clozapine.

          Primary outcome measure

          The weighted mean difference was calculated using a DerSimonian-Laird random effects model, along with 95% CI.

          Results

          Seven association studies, comprising 1094 patients (652 smokers and 442 non-smokers) with schizophrenia or other psychiatric disorders, were included in the meta-analysis of olanzapine. The C/D ratio was significantly lower in smokers than in non-smokers (p<0.00001), and the mean difference was −0.75 (ng/mL)/(mg/day) (95% CI −0.89 to −0.61). Therefore, it was estimated that if 10 and 20 mg/day of olanzapine would be administered to smokers, about 7 and 14 mg/day, respectively, should be administered to non-smokers in order to obtain the equivalent olanzapine concentration. Four association studies of clozapine were included in the meta-analysis of clozapine, comprising 196 patients (120 smokers and 76 non-smokers) with schizophrenia or other psychiatric disorders. The C/D ratio was significantly lower in smokers than in non-smokers (p<0.00001), and the mean difference was −1.11 (ng/mL)/(mg/day) (95% CI −1.53 to −0.70). Therefore, it was estimated that if 200 and 400 mg/day of clozapine would be administered to smokers, about 100 and 200 mg/day, respectively, should be administered to non-smokers.

          Conclusions

          We suggest that the doses of olanzapine and clozapine should be reduced by 30% and 50%, respectively, in non-smokers compared with smokers in order to obtain an equivalent olanzapine or clozapine concentration.

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          Most cited references 48

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          Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) statement and publication bias.

          Publication bias is a major problem in evidence based medicine. As well as positive outcome studies being preferentially published or followed by full text publication authors are also more likely to publish positive results in English-language journals. This unequal distribution of trials leads to a selection bias in evidence l level studies, like systematic reviews, meta-analysis or health technology assessments followed by a systematic failure of interpretation and in clinical decisions. Publication bias in a systematic review occurs mostly during the selection process and a transparent selection process is necessary to avoid such bias. For systematic reviews/meta-analysis the PRISMA-statement (formerly known as QUOROM) is recommended, as it gives the reader for a better understanding of the selection process. In the future the use of trial registration for minimizing publication bias, mechanisms to allow easier access to the scientific literature and improvement in the peer review process are recommended to overcome publication bias. The use of checklists like PRISMA is likely to improve the reporting quality of a systematic review and provides substantial transparency in the selection process of papers in a systematic review. Copyright © 2010 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            Olanzapine. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile.

            Multicentre trials in patients with schizophrenia confirm that olanzapine is a novel antipsychotic agent with broad efficacy, eliciting a response in both the positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Compared with traditional antipsychotic agents, olanzapine causes a lower incidence of extrapyramidal symptoms and minimal perturbation of prolactin levels. Generally, olanzapine is well tolerated. The pharmacokinetics of olanzapine are linear and dose-proportional within the approved dosage range. Its mean half-life in healthy individuals was 33 hours, ranging from 21 to 54 hours. The mean apparent plasma clearance was 26 L/h, ranging from 12 to 47 L/h. Smokers and men have a higher clearance of olanzapine than women and nonsmokers. After administering [14C]olanzapine, approximately 60% of the radioactivity was excreted in urine and 30% in faeces. Olanzapine is predominantly bound to albumin (90%) and alpha 1-acid glycoprotein (77%). Olanzapine is metabolised to its 10- and 4'-N-glucuronides, 4'-N-desmethylolanzapine [cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A2] and olanzapine N-oxide (flavin mono-oxygenase 3). Metabolism to 2-hydroxymethylolanzapine via CYP2D6 is a minor pathway. The 10-N-glucuronide is the most abundant metabolite, but formation of 4'-N-desmethylolanzapine is correlated with the clearance of olanzapine. Olanzapine does not inhibit CYP isozymes. No clinically significant metabolic interactions were found between olanzapine and diazepam, alcohol (ethanol), imipramine, R/S-warfarin, aminophylline, biperiden, lithium or fluoxetine. Fluvoxamine, an inhibitor of CYP1A2, increases plasma concentrations of olanzapine; inducers of CYP1A2, including tobacco smoke and carbamazepine, decrease olanzapine concentrations. Orthostatic changes were observed when olanzapine and diazepam or alcohol were coadministered. Pharmacodynamic interactions occurred between olanzapine and alcohol, and olanzapine and imipramine, implying that patients should avoid operating hazardous equipment or driving an automobile while experiencing the short term effects of the combinations. Individual factors with the largest impact on olanzapine pharmacokinetics are gender and smoking status. The plasma clearance of olanzapine generally varies over a 4-fold range, but the variability in the clearance and concentration of olanzapine does not appear to be associated with the severity or duration of adverse effects or the degree of efficacy. Thus, dosage adjustments appear unnecessary for these individual factors. However, dosage modification should be considered for patients characterised by a combination of factors associated with decreased oxidative metabolism, for example, debilitated or elderly women who are nonsmokers.
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              Duloxetine: clinical pharmacokinetics and drug interactions.

              Duloxetine, a potent reuptake inhibitor of serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine, is effective for the treatment of major depressive disorder, diabetic neuropathic pain, stress urinary incontinence, generalized anxiety disorder and fibromyalgia. Duloxetine achieves a maximum plasma concentration (C(max)) of approximately 47 ng/mL (40 mg twice-daily dosing) to 110 ng/mL (80 mg twice-daily dosing) approximately 6 hours after dosing. The elimination half-life of duloxetine is approximately 10-12 hours and the volume of distribution is approximately 1640 L. The goal of this paper is to provide a review of the literature on intrinsic and extrinsic factors that may impact the pharmacokinetics of duloxetine with a focus on concomitant medications and their clinical implications. Patient demographic characteristics found to influence the pharmacokinetics of duloxetine include sex, smoking status, age, ethnicity, cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6 genotype, hepatic function and renal function. Of these, only impaired hepatic function or severely impaired renal function warrant specific warnings or dose recommendations. Pharmacokinetic results from drug interaction studies show that activated charcoal decreases duloxetine exposure, and that CYP1A2 inhibition increases duloxetine exposure to a clinically significant degree. Specifically, following oral administration in the presence of fluvoxamine, the area under the plasma concentration-time curve and C(max) of duloxetine significantly increased by 460% (90% CI 359, 584) and 141% (90% CI 93, 200), respectively. In addition, smoking is associated with a 30% decrease in duloxetine concentration. The exposure of duloxetine with CYP2D6 inhibitors or in CYP2D6 poor metabolizers is increased to a lesser extent than that observed with CYP1A2 inhibition and does not require a dose adjustment. In addition, duloxetine increases the exposure of drugs that are metabolized by CYP2D6, but not CYP1A2. Pharmacodynamic study results indicate that duloxetine may enhance the effects of benzodiazepines, but not alcohol or warfarin. An increase in gastric pH produced by histamine H(2)-receptor antagonists or antacids did not impact the absorption of duloxetine. While duloxetine is generally well tolerated, it is important to be knowledgeable about the potential for pharmacokinetic interactions between duloxetine and drugs that inhibit CYP1A2 or drugs that are metabolized by CYP2D6 enzymes.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                BMJ Open
                BMJ Open
                bmjopen
                bmjopen
                BMJ Open
                BMJ Publishing Group (BMA House, Tavistock Square, London, WC1H 9JR )
                2044-6055
                2014
                4 March 2014
                : 4
                : 3
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Division of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kumamoto University , Kumamoto, Japan
                [2 ]Department of Neuropsychiatry, Hirosaki University School of Medicine , Hirosaki, Japan
                Author notes
                [Correspondence to ] Dr Junji Saruwatari; junsaru@ 123456gpo.kumamoto-u.ac.jp
                Article
                bmjopen-2013-004216
                10.1136/bmjopen-2013-004216
                3948577
                24595134
                Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions

                This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 3.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

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