The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) after intra-abdominal prosthetic vascular graft surgery. We report 8 consecutive patients with end-stage renal disease, who previously underwent intra-abdominal prosthetic aortic graft replacement, treated by CAPD between November 1983 and November 1994. All patients received a peritoneal dialysis catheter without technical problems and were dialyzed for a total of 208 months. Six episodes of peritonitis occurred in 4 patients without clinical evidence of any abdominal aortic graft infection. Three patients developed intermittent claudication and 2 died of myocardial infarct. A similar peritonitis and cardiovascular complication rate was observed in a control group of age- and sex-matched CAPD patients with no aortic prosthesis. We conclude that CAPD is feasible in patients with abdominal aortic prosthesis.